Collateral Manage References.

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ide effects of plant protection products on Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hym. Trichogrammatidae)Author: Abdelgader, H.; Hassan, S. A.

Year: 2002

Journal: Bulletin OILB/SROP

Volume: 25

Pages: 63-70

Abstract: The side effects of 13 plant protection products (9 insecticides/acaricides, 2 fungicides and 2 herbicides) on adults and immature stages of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae [T. cacaeciae] were studied in the laboratory. The results showed that one insecticide (Mimic, tebufenozide), and one herbicide (Logran, triasulfuron), were safe to the adults, whereas 6 insecticides and one fungicide were harmful. The other tested insecticides (Naja, fenpyroximate; and Chess, pymetrozine), fungicide (Amistar, azoxystrobin) and herbicide (Gesagard, prometryn) were slightly to moderately harmful. Spraying onto immature stages of T. cacoeciae (within the host eggs Sitotroga cerealella) showed that only one insecticide (Phosdrin, mevinphos) was harmful, two insecticides (Confidor, imidacloprid; and Masai, tebufenpyrad) were slightly harmful and the remaining preparations (Neemazal, azadirachtin; Impuls, spiroxamine; Aztec, triazamate; Dicarzol, formetanate; and Chess) were harmless.

 

Selective toxicity of some pesticides to Hibana velox (Araneae : Anyphaenidae), a predator of citrus leafminer

Author: Amalin, D. M.; Pena, J. E.; Yu, S. J.; McSorley, R.

Year: 2000

Journal: Florida Entomologist

Volume: 83

Pages: 254-262

Abstract: The toxicity of fourteen different pesticides used in ‘Tahiti’ lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Christman) Swingle, to the spider, Hibana velox (Becker) was tested under laboratory conditions. Among the nine pesticides tested using a coated glass vial method, the five broad-spectrum insecticides (azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl, dicofol) were all highly toxic to H, velox, causing 100% mortality even at the lowest concentration. Avermectin and Provado(R) (a.i., imidacloprid) applied as sprays had moderate toxicity; whereas, Admire(R) (a.i., imidacloprid) applied as a drench and Tri-Basic(R) (copper fungicide) caused the lowest percent mortality (10-30%) even at the highest concentration. With a leaf-dip method, petroleum oil exhibited a low toxicity to H. velox. However, when combining petroleum oil with avermectin, a synergistic effect elevated the toxicity to moderate. Azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diflubenzuron showed low impact on H. velox. Less than 20% mortality was recorded at the highest concentrations for all of these products.

 

Side-effects of pesticides on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Heteroptera : Anthocoridae) in the laboratory

Author: Angeli, G.; Baldessari, M.; Maines, R.; Duso, C.

Year: 2005

Journal: Biocontrol Science and Technology

Volume: 15

Pages: 745-754

Abstract: Laboratory trials were carried out in order to test the effects of 29 pesticides on the predatory bug, Orius laevigatus. To evaluate residual contact activity, newly moulted fourth instar nymphs of O. laevigatus were placed on treated Petri dishes and their mortality was checked after 7 days. The fecundity of surviving females was tested for 14 days. Young O. laevigatus adults were fed with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella, treated with the (above-mentioned) pesticides, to assess the effect of pesticides by ingestion. Adult mortality, female fecundity and egg hatching were recorded. Azadirachtin, granulosis virus products, mineral oil, pirimicarb, tebufenozide, clofentezine, hexythiazox and copper oxychloride had no significant effect on the survival and fecundity of O. laevigatus when predators were exposed to pesticide residues by contact or by ingestion. Triflumuron and diflubenzuron appeared to be harmless by contact, but diflubenzuron was slightly toxic when ingested. Buprofezin and teflubenzuron were slightly to moderately toxic, while hexaflumuron, flufenoxuron, and lufenuron showed a marked toxicity by contact as well as by ingestion. A number of organophosphates, endosulfan and deltamethrin were detrimental especially by contact. Imidacloprid was very toxic by contact but only slightly toxic when ingested. Indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide were less toxic than imidacloprid. These findings should be considered when releases of O. laevigatus are used in greenhouses or on outdoor crops.

 

Short communication. Toxicity of abamectin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, mineral oil and an industrial detergent with respect to Encarsia formosa (Gahan) parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood nymphs

Author: Araya, J. E.; Estay, P.; Araya, M. H.

Year: 2006

Journal: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research

Volume: 4

Pages: 86-90

Abstract: The control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum on tomato with Encarsia formosa is influenced by the use of insecticides. Nine days after allowing E. formosa adults to lay their eggs in T vaporariorum nymphs on tomato plants, insecticide solutions (abamectin, mineral oil, acetamiprid, an industrial detergent and imadacloprid) were applied at the highest recommended dosages to tomato leaflets in Petri dishes using a Potter tower (four replicates, each involving 20 parasitized nymphs). Adult parasitoids began to emerge on day 7 post-application; this lasted 3-4 days, peaking on day 9 post-application. All the tested products killed the E. formosa pupae (an effect significantly different [P <= 0.05] to that achieved with the water control). The products with the greatest toxicity were the detergent (62.99% mortality) and mineral oil (49.55% mortality; no significant difference). The effect of abamectin, the third most toxic agent (33.05% mortality), was not statistically different to that of the mineral oil. Imidacloprid (20.17% mortality) and acetamiprid (20.71% mortality) were the least toxic treatments and could be used (along with abamectin to a lesser extent) in integrated whitefly management programmes involving E. formosa pupae. At the concentrations used, the mineral oil and industrial detergent are not recommended for use in such programmes given their high toxicity to E. formosa pupae.

 

The impact of two insecticides on predatory ground beetles (Carabidae) in newly sown grass

Author: Asteraki, E. J.; Hanks, C. B.; Clements, R. O.

Year: 1992

Journal: Annals of Applied Biology

Volume: 120

Pages: 25-39

Abstract: Field scale experiments carried out over three years showed that chlorpyrifos reduced the numbers of several carabid beetle species caught in pitfall traps. Fonofos seed treatment was also shown to affect selected species. Consideration of the biology of individuals of groups of species provided explanations of why some species such as Nebria brevicollis, Notiophilus spp., Bembidion spp., and Trechus quadristriatus were severely affected by one or other of the chemicals, whereas other species (e.g. Amara spp., Harpalus spp.) were able to survive or recolonise pastures shortly after chemical application. Measurements of elytral and pronotal widths and counts of mature eggs in N. brevicollis, which was trapped in reduced numbers over a long period, were made and provided some information about the mode of action of these chemicals.

 

Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts

Author: Bastos, C. S.; de Almeida, R. P.; Suinaga, F. A.

Year: 2006

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 62

Pages: 91-98

Abstract: The side-effects of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators) used on cotton were tested on adults and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley reared in the laboratory on two different hosts, the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller)). The eggs of the host enclosing the parasitoid pupae received direct pesticide sprays, while the adults of the parasitoid were exposed to the pesticides through contact with residues on sprayed eggs offered to parasitism. Alpha-cypermethrin, carbosulfan, deltamethrin, endosulfan, profenofos and zeta-cypermethrin were highly noxious to the parasitoid, significantly reducing the percentage of emergence and parasitism of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella or S. cerealella eggs. However, the pupal stage of the parasitoid developing in S. cerealella eggs was less susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Lufenuron and metamidophos greatly reduced the percentage of adult emergence from eggs of both hosts, while novaluron only interfered on this variable when the wasps were developing in E. kuehniella eggs. However, lufenuron and monocrotophos had no effect on the parasitoid pupae of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella eggs. Chlorfluazuron, diafenthiuron, diflubenzuron, fentin hydroxide, mepiquat chloride, novaluron, thiacloprid and triflumuron did not affect T. pretiosum emergence when eggs of S. cerealella enclosing pupae of the wasps were surface treated. The pesticides azoxystrobin, carbendazin + thiram, mepiquat chloride and novaluron had no effect on the ability of the wasps to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs. However, only mepiquat chloride did not affect the percentage of F, wasps emerging from E. kuehniella eggs. The remaining pesticides moderately reduced the percentage of emergence and parasitism of the wasps when they had contact with the chemicals during their pupal or adult stage. Thus there were differences in pesticide toxicity according to the host used for parasitoid development. These differences were hypothesised to occur because of differences in egg morphology and parasitoid performance. (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

 

Developing an Ecotoxicological Testing Standard for Predatory Mites in Australia: Acute and Sublethal Effects of FUngicides on Euseius victoriensis and Galendromus occidentalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae)

Author: Bernard, M.; Carew, M.; Hurst, P.; Horne, P.; Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 97

Pages: 891-899

Abstract: Laboratory bioassays for testing the effect of agrochemicals on Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) on detached leaves of Glycine max (L.) (soybean) and Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean) were developed. The tests allowed standardized comparisons between mite species and leaf substrates, under “worst-case scenario” exposure, comparable with commercial pesticide application. Young juveniles, along with their initial food and the entire water supply, were sprayed to the point of runoff by using a Potter spray tower. The highest registered field rate concentration used on French bean was adjusted to deliver the same pesticide dose per higher runoff point spray volume on soybean. Cumulative mortality was assessed at 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d afterspray application. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from the onset of egg lay. Boscalid (Filan 500 WG), dithianon (Delan 700 WG), and kresoxim-methyl (Stroby 500 WG) caused no significant 7-d mortality or fecundity reduction to G. occidentalis or E. victoriensis compared with controls, and are classified as harmless to both species. Mancozeb (Mancozeb 750 WG) was highly toxic to both species, resulting in severe mortality and fecundity reduction and is considered incompatible with integrated pest management programs that use these species. Metiram (Polyram 700 WG) was highly toxic to E. victoriensis but only moderately toxic to G. occidentalis. Analyses of mortality proportions, including, and excluding unaccounted escapees, produced the same results. Test standardization on leaf substrates provides an alternative approach to standardization via residue on glass used by International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control or Noxious Animals and Plants/West Palaearctic Regional Section regulatory testing in the European Union.

 

Effects of several types of insecticides on the mite predator, stethorus-punctum (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), including insect growth regulators and abamectin

Author: Biddinger, D. J.; Hull, L. A.

Year: 1995

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 88

Pages: 358-366

Abstract: Abamectin, methomyl, several types of insect growth regulators (IGRs), and several organophosphate insecticides were evaluated for toxicity to the egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages of the coccinellid mite predator, Stethorus punctum (LeConte). Field-collected eggs were dipped into aqueous solutions to evaluate ovicidal activity; field collected mid-instars and adults were tested by a 24-h dry film exposure method. Multiple mortality readings were done over time. Pupal mortality was evaluated in field plots that received biweekly applications. Fenoxycarb was ovicidal in the laboratory and disrupted the larval-pupal molt in the field. Abamectin was toxic to S. punctum larvae and adults in the laboratory and methomyl was toxic to adults. Teflubenzuron was toxic to the pupal stage in the field; along with fenoxycarb, this IGR caused late-season increases of phytophagous mite populations in field trials. Tebufenozide was not toxic to all S. punctum stages in the laboratory and field. S. punctum was tolerant to all organophosphate insecticides tested.

 

Effect of pesticide mixtures on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis AH (Acarina, Phytoseiidae) in the laboratory

Author: Blumel, S.; Gross, M.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie

Volume: 125

Pages: 201-205

Abstract: The acaricide hexythiazox (Acorit(R) SC, 100 g a.i.l(-1)), the fungicide triadimefon (Bayleton spezial(R) WG, 52 g a.i.kg(-1)) and the insecticide heptenophos (Hostaquick(R) EC: 550 g a.i.l(-1)), were tested in the laboratory for their side-effects on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis A.H. The pesticides were either applied separately at a range of concentrations or in admixture to detached bean leaves using a Potter Tower to deposit 2 mg spray solution per cm(2) No significant differences in the mean mortality rate of the phytoseiid or in the mean reproduction per female was found between the different treatments. Total effect values ranged from 5.4 to 38.7% after separate application of the test products and from 8.9 to 25.5% after treatment with the various pesticide mixtures.

 

Comparative trials on the effects of two fungicides on a predatory mite in the laboratory and in the field

Author: Blumel, S.; Pertl, C.; Bakker, F. M.

Year: 2000

Journal: Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Volume: 97

Pages: 321-330

Abstract: Both laboratory tests with the open glass plate method of Louis & Ufer (1995) and a field study in a vineyard were carried out to test the side effects of the two fungicides, Dithane Ultra WG75 and Polyram Combi WG70, on the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). The effects of both fungicides in the residual contact test in the laboratory were more pronounced than the actual effects obtained in the field even after multiple application of the test products. The study results suggest, that for the selected test products the current laboratory guidelines correctly triggered the field test. Methodological problems of the laboratory test due to the repellent effect of the fungicides are discussed.

 

Vineyard pesticides and their effects on invertebrate biomarkers and bioindicator species in New Zealand

Author: Booth, L. H.; Bithell, S. L.; Wratten, S. D.; Heppelthwaite, V. J.

Year: 2003

Journal: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Volume: 71

Pages: 1131-1138

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Effects of five fungicides used in Quebec apple orchards on Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) (Phytoseiidae : Acari)

Author: Bostanian, N. J.; Thistlewood, H.; Racette, G.

Year: 1998

Journal: Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology

Volume: 73

Pages: 527-530

Abstract: The toxicity of the fungicides captan, dodine, mancozeb, metiram and myclobutanil to adults, nymphs and 0-24 h eggs of Amblyseius fallacis was evaluated in the laboratory. Dodine and mancozeb reduced egg hatch significantly in comparison with water controls and dodine was the most toxic to the nymphs. Captan and metiram had no effect and the remaining fungicides were of intermediate toxicity. None of the fungicides affected the longevity and the fecundity of young females.

 

Relative toxicity of permethrin to Mononychellus-progresivus Doreste and Tetranychus-urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae) and their predators Amblyseius-limonicus Garman and McGregor (acari, phytoseiidae) and Oligota-minuta cameron (coleoptera, staphylinidae) – bioassays and field validation

Author: Braun, A. R.; Guerrero, J. M.; Bellotti, A. C.; Wilson, L. T.

Year: 1987

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 16

Pages: 545-550

Abstract: Feasibility of using permethrin for predator-exclusion experiments was studied in the Cauca Valley region of Colombia. Impact of permethrin on the cassava pests, Mononychellus progresivus Doreste and Tetranychus urticae Koch; their natural enemies, Amblyseius limonicus Garman & McGregor (formerly in Typhlodromalus) and Oligota minuta Cameron; and the sympatric pest, Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams, was determined through laboratory bioassays and field tests. Laboratory LC50 data showed that the predaceous species were more than an order of magnitude more susceptible to permethrin than their prey. Doses for field testing were chosen based on laboratory data. No effect upon P. herreni survivorship or fecundity was measured at the highest dose chosen for field testing. In the field, data were obtained only for A. limonicus and M. progresivus. Plots that received bimonthly treatments with either 2 or 8 g (a.i.)/100 liters had significantly lower numbers of A. limonicus than untreated plots. M. progresivus numbers began to increase in treated plots immediately after initiation of permethrin application and remained significantly higher than in untreated plots throughout the course of the treatment period.

 

Effect of the insecticides abamectin and lufenuron on eggs and larvae of Chrysoperla externa under laboratory conditions

Author: Bueno, A. F.; Freitas, S.

Year: 2004

Journal: Biocontrol

Volume: 49

Pages: 277-283

Abstract: The side effects of two insecticides/acaricides, abamectin and lufenuron, on the eggs and larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) were studied in the laboratory (25 +/- 2degreesC, 62 +/- 10% RH and 12-h photophase). The analytical methods used were those proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC)-Working Group for ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’. Chrysoperla externa egg viability was not affected by abamectin. Neonate larvae from abamectin sprayed eggs as well as first, second and third instar larvae that were directly treated, developed normally and yielded normal adults. Lufenuron presented no adverse effects on egg survival. However, lufenuron induced high mortality in neonate larvae from treated eggs. These neonates, as well as lufenuron treated first and second instar larvae could not molt. In the third instar, high pupal mortality occurred. The results showed that abamectin is innocuous and that lufenurom is toxic to Chrysoperla externa eggs and larvae.

 

Assessing the environmental impacts of pesticides used on processing tomato crops

Author: Bues, R.; Bussieres, P.; Dadomo, M.; Dumas, Y.; Garcia-Pomar, M. I.; Lyannaz, J. P.

Year: 2004

Journal: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment

Volume: 102

Pages: 155-162

Abstract: The environmental impacts of pesticides used on processing tomato crops at 10 experimental sites of five Mediterranean countries and on the Reunion Island were assessed over 3 years using two different methods. The indicator obtained using the environmental impact quotients (EIQ) of pesticides method was highly correlated with the amount of active ingredients used, whereas the indicator based on the pesticide environmental impact (IPEST) method was highly correlated with the number of treatments applied. Both methods showed that fungicides were largely responsible for the estimated impacts. The EIQ method showed that the impact was greater on non-human biota than farmworkers and consumers. The indicators obtained using these two methods were only slightly correlated with each other but both methods used together provided a more complete analysis of the impacts of pesticides. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

 

Toxicity of some insecticides to Tetranychus urticae, Neoseiulus californicus and Tydeus californicus

Author: Castagnoli, M.; Liguori, M.; Simoni, S.; Duso, C.

Year: 2005

Journal: Biocontrol

Volume: 50

Pages: 611-622

Abstract: Three mite species are frequently found on vegetable crops in Italy: the pest Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Acari: Tetranychidae), the predator Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) ( Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the unspecialised feeder Tydeus californicus ( Banks) ( Acari: Tydeidae). In laboratory trials, the direct and residual effects of six insecticides recommended for the control of aphids, whiteflies and thrips in vegetable crops, (Biopiren(R) plus ( pyrethrins), Confidor(R) ( imidacloprid), Oikos(R) ( azadirachtin), Plenum(R) (pymetrozine), Naturalis(R) (Beauveria bassiana) and Rotena(R) ( rotenone)), were evaluated for the three mite species. All the products affected the mites and their effect was often favourable towards T. urticae and unfavourable towards N. californicus and T. californicus. Rotenone was more toxic to eggs than females of T. urticae. It was highly toxic to N. californicus and caused the death of all treated females of T. californicus. Pyrethrins and imidacloprid increased T. urticae fecundity, but decreased fecundity of N. californicus. Imidacloprid decreased T. californicus fecundity more than pyrethrins. Beauveria bassiana was not toxic to T. urticae and T. californicus, but induced high mortality in the progeny of treated females of N. californicus. Azadirachtin and pymetrozine were the least toxic to T. urticae and N. californicus, but decreased production of larvae in T. californicus. Implications for integrated pest management on vegetables are discussed.

 

Comparative residual toxicities of pesticides to the predator Euseius mesembrinus (Acari : Phytoseiidae) on citrus in Florida

Author: Childers, C. C.; Aguilar, H.; Villanueva, R.; Abou-Setta, M. M.

Year: 2001

Journal: Florida Entomologist

Volume: 84

Pages: 391-401

Abstract: Residual toxicities of registered and selected experimental pesticides used on citrus against Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared. A tractor-drawn airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 2,338 liters/ha was used to apply pesticides at one or more recommended rates on mature ‘Ruby Red’ grapefruit trees. Pesticides rated as highly toxic were: azinphos-methyl 50WP at 4.48 kg/ha, dicofol 4EC at 7.01 liters/ha, formetanate 92SP at 5.84 kg/ha, dimethoate 4EC at 5.85 liters/ha, malathion 57EC at 5.85 liters/ha, propargite 6.55EC at 3.51 liters/ha, benomyl 50WP at 1.68 kg/ha + ferbam 76GF at 5.60 kg/ha, ferbam 76GF at 16.81 kg/ha, carbaryl XLR plus at 18.7 liters/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, pyridaben 75WP at 462 g/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, carbaryl SOS at 11.21 kg/ha, ethion 4EC at 7.01 liters/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, benomyl 50WP at 3.36 kg/ha, chlor-fenapyr 2SC at 1.46 liters/ha, and pyridaben 75WP at 462 g/ha. Pesticides that were moderately to slightly toxic were: sulfur 80DF at 16.81 kg/ha, abamectin 0.15EC at 731 ml/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, chlor-fenapyr 2SC at 971 ml/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, FC435-66 petroleum oil at 93.5 liters/ha, and chlorpyrifos 4EC at 5.85 liters/ha. Pesticides that were considered non-toxic were: FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, carbaryl 80S at 4.48 kg/ha, chlorfenapyr 2SC at 971 mna, chlorpyrifos 4EC at 5.85 liters/ha, fenbuconazole 2F at 292 ml/ha + FC435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 liters/ha, copper hydroxide 77WP at 4.48 kg metallic/ha, benomyl 50WP at 3.36 kg/ha, and fenbuconazole 2F at 584 ml;ha. Ferbam 76GF at 16.81 kg/ha, benomyl 50WP + ferbam 76GF, carbaryl SOS at 11.21 kg/ha, carbaryl XLR Plus + FC435-66 petroleum oil, and benomyl 50WP at 3.36 kg/ha had significantly higher numbers of missing females from treated leaf surfaces suggesting these products were repellent, irritating, and/or excitatory to the gravid females.

 

Toxic effects of spinosad on predatory insects

Author: Cisneros, J.; Goulson, D.; Derwent, L. C.; Penagos, D. I.; Hernandez, O.; Williams, T.

Year: 2002

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 23

Pages: 156-163

Abstract: Spinosad (Dow AgroSciences) is a mixture of tetracyclic-macrolide compounds produced by a soil actinomycete and has been classified as a bioinsecticide. Spinosad is highly active against Lepidoptera but is reported to be practically nontoxic to insect natural enemies. We assessed the impact of Spinosad in a granular maize-flour formulation on a selection of insect predators over periods of 2-14 days. In all cases, the quantities of Spinosad used were less than the maximum recommended rates given on the product label. Adults of Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) suffered a high prevalence of mortality following consumption of 1000 or 2000 ppm Spinosad active ingredient (a.i.), but little mortality at 200 ppm. Larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) did not consume the granular formulation and suffered little overall mortality. After 14 days of exposure, the earwig, Doru taeniatum (Dohrn) (Dermaptera:Forficulidae), suffered 48% mortality in the 1.2 ppm Spinosad treatment increasing to 98% in the 1200 ppm Spinosad treatment compared to 20% in controls. Earwigs suffered 86% mortality/intoxication 72 h after feeding on Spinosad-contaminated Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae. A field trial was performed to compare applications of commercial granular chlorpyrifos and Spinosad in maize-flour granules (200 and 2000 ppm ad.; 4.8-48 g a.i./ha, respectively) or as an aqueous spray (160 ppm ad.; 48 g a.i/ha) on earwigs held inside gauze bags. Mortality of earwigs on control plants was less than 15% at 2 days postapplication compared to 33% on plants treated with granular chlorpyrifos, 83% on plants sprayed with 160 ppm Spinosad, and 91-95% on plants treated with 200-2000 ppm Spinosad granules, respectively. Further mortality in the 24-h period postsampling ranged from <5% in control treatments, to 9% in the chlorpyrifos treatment, and to 55-65% in the Spinosad spray and granule treatments. We conclude that Spinosad cannot be considered to have an environmental safety profile similar to most established biological insecticides. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science.

 

Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera : Pseudococcidae)

Author: Cloyd, R. A.; Dickinson, A.

Year: 2006

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 99

Pages: 1596-1604

Abstract: In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinoteforan, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4X the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4X the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4X the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that these insecticides are compatible with both natural enemies when used together for control of citrus mealybug in greenhouses and conservatories.

 

Selectivity of insecticides to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, (Hym., Trichogrammatidae)

Author: Consoli, F. L.; Botelho, P. S. M.; Parra, J. R. P.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie

Volume: 125

Pages: 37-43

Abstract: Trichogramma galloi Zucchi is an efficient biological control agent against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. This parasitoid is also a candidate to be used in pest management programmes in corn, as D. saccharalis has become a serious pest of this crop in some areas in Brazil. However, there is no data on the side-effects of chemicals on this species. The side-effects of promising chemicals to control the sugarcane borer in corn were tested by dipping eggs of the factitious host into the insecticidal solutions. Two different treatments were tested. First, dipping parasitized host eggs at different stages of immature development (egg-larva, prepupa and pupa), and second, by offering treated eggs to newly emerged females. The toxicity of the chemicals tested were dependent on the age of the parasitoid, affecting the immature survival. developmental time from egg to adult, parasitization capacity, adult longevity and the development of the filial generation. Spinosad. tebufenozide, triflumuron and lufenuron delayed adult eclosion of T. galloi when used to treat the host egg during the pupal stage. Spinosad was harmful when tested against any immature stage and adults of T. galloi. Lufenuron and triflumuron were harmful only when applied during the egg-larval development of the parasitoid. Although they did not affect the pa rasitization capacity, they caused almost 100% mortality of the immatures when used to treat eggs prior to parasitization. Tebufenozide was harmless to T. galloi causing a very slight immature mortality if used during the prepupal development.

 

Side-effects of insecticides used in tomato fields on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym., Trichogrammatidae), a natural enemy of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep., Gelechiidae)

Author: Consoli, F. L.; Parra, J. R. P.; Hassan, S. A.

Year: 1998

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie

Volume: 122

Pages: 43-47

Abstract: Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy used for the biological control of Tuta absoluta in tomato fields in several countries in South America. The side-effects of insecticides on T. pretiosum was tested by dipping parasitized host eggs (Ephestia kuchniella Zeller) at three different development stages (egg-larvae, pre-pupae and pupae)in pesticide solution at recommended concentrations. The insecticides varied in their toxicity and significantly affected the development time of the immature stages, emergence, parasitism and longevity of the adult parasitoid. Cartap and phenthoate were harmful and caused total mortality in all the experiments in the three stages of development tested. Lambda-cyhalothrin was not detrimental but caused a significant increase in mortality, prolonged development of the immature stages and decreased the capacity of parasitism of the emerged females. Tebufenozide, teflubenzuron and abamectin had sublethal effects. They reduced the time of development, especially when applied during the pupae stage. The capacity of parasitism of emerged females decreased and was affected by the stage of development treated. With abamectin treatments, parasitism decreased as the development of the parasitoid advanced and the mortality of the emerged adults from host eggs treated during the pupae stage was significantly higher. Tebufenozide reduced parasitism when applied during the egg-larval and pre-pupae stages. The results showed that cartap and phenthoate were harmful, lambda-cyalothrin and abamectin were intermediate, tebufenozide and teflubenzuron were harmless to slightly harmful. Nearly all the chemicals tested had significant sublethal effects.

 

Managing spider mites on fruit trees

Author: Cranham, J. E.

Year: 1979

Journal: Span

Volume: 22

Pages: 28-30

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin applications on nontarget invertebrates in a conservation tillage crop

Author: Curtis, J. E.; Horne, P. A.

Year: 1995

Journal: Journal of the Australian Entomological Society

Volume: 34

Pages: 229-231

Abstract: The short-term impact of two commonly used insecticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) on predatory species of invertebrates, including carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae), Labidura truncata Kirby (Dermaptera: Labiduridae) and a pest beetle, Gonocephalum adelaidae Blackburn (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was assessed in a faba bean crop (Vicia faba L. cv. Fiord) grown under conservation-tillage. The project aimed to identify which, if any, of the key beneficial or pest invertebrates that are active on the soil surface were affected by foliar applications of insecticides. The activity of some species, reflected by numbers of pit Fall trapped individuals, was affected within 24 h. There was a brief (1-d) increase, followed by a reduction in the number of G. adelaidae, L. truncata and carabids captured in the cypermethrin sprayed plots when compared to the control and chlorpyrifos treatments. The numbers of carabids captured declined in both insecticide treatments for the remainder of the study period, but neither treatment had any observed effect on G. adelaidae, L. truncata or lycosid spiders.

 

The impact of fungicides to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) on the predatory mite Anystis baccarum and its prey Aculus schlechtendali (apple rust mite) in Northern Ireland Bramley orchards

Author: Cuthbertson, A. G. S.; Murchie, A. K.

Year: 2003

Journal: Crop Protection

Volume: 22

Pages: 1125-1130

Abstract: Apple scab is the most serious disease in Northern Ireland Bramley orchards: As a result, as many as 14 fungicide sprays can be applied each season to control the disease. Anystis baccarum is a commonly occurring predatory mite in the orchards. The effects of three commonly used fungicides (captan/penconazole, mancozeb and dithianon) on A. baccarum and the pest mite Aculus schlechtendali were investigated. On the mancozeb treated trees there were fewer A. baccarum and more A. schlechtendali compared to the other treatments, although the latter result was probably due to the condition of the leaves in this treatment. Dithianon had no detrimental effect on A. baccarum. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Selectivity of inseticides to eggs and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae)

Author: de Carvalho, G. A.; Morais, A. A.; Rocha, L. C. D.; Godoy, M. S.; Cosme, L. V.

Year: 2005

Journal: Neotropical Entomology

Volume: 34

Pages: 423-427

Abstract: The predator Orius insidiosus (Say) feeds on thrips, aphids, whiteflies, mites and small caterpillars and contributes to regulate the population of these pests in different agroecossystems. The present research aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the pesticides abamectin, cartap, cyromazine, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid, which are registered for chrysanthemum crops, to eggs and first-, second- and third-instar nymphs of O. insidiosus. A Potter tower was used to spray the insecticides on the eggs and nymphs at the highest recommended rates. After spraying, the individuals were kept under controlled conditions at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10 % RH and 12h photophase. The effects of the pesticides on the embryonic period, on egg viability, instar duration and nymph survival were evaluated. The eggs of O. insidiosus were tolerant to all pesticides. Both cartap and cyromazine were selective, whereas abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were toxic to all tested instars of O. insidiosus. Fenpropathrin was the most toxic pesticide and killed 100 % of the nymphs. The insecticides cartap and cyromazine can be recommended for integrated pest management programs in chrysanthemum crops.

 

Toxicity of diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, imidacloprid and diafenthiuron to the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Het.: Anthocoridae)

Author: Delbeke, F.; Vercruysse, P.; Tirry, L.; De Clercq, P.; Degheele, D.

Year: 1997

Journal: Entomophaga

Volume: 42

Pages: 349-358

Abstract: The susceptibility of the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Fieber) to the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, the nitroguanidine insecticide imidacloprid and the thiourea compound diafenthiuron was investigated in the laboratory. Fifth-instar nymphs were exposed to formulated materials of each compound and adults were exposed to formulated materials of diafenthiuron and imidacloprid. In each case, exposure via ingestion and residual contact was tested. Pyriproxyfen was harmless to O. laevigatus nymphs by both ways of exposure. The respective LC50-values of diflubenzuron via ingestion and residual contact were 229.9 and 391.1 mg a.i./l. Diafenthiuron did not cause significant mortality to fifth-instar nymphs and adults via ingestion but was toxic by residual contact with LC50-values of 329.4 mg a.i./l and 125.9 mg a.i./l for nymphs and adults respectively. Imidacloprid proved to be the most toxic compound with LC,, values of 1.1 and 0.04 mg a.i./l for nymphs and 2.1 and 0.3 mg a.i./l for adults, via ingestion and residual contact, respectively. The results suggest that use of pyriproxyfen in an integrated pest management programme will not cause any problems but that imidacloprid, and to a lesser extent, also diflubenzuron and diafenthiuron could be harmful to the predator.

 

The toxicity of 2 pyrethroids to  Encarsia formosa and its host Trialeurodes vaporariorum: prospecting for a resistant strain of the parasite.

Author: Delorme, R.; Berthier, A.

Year: 1985

Journal: Pesticide Science

Volume: 16

Pages: 213-214

Abstract: The toxicity of bioresmethrin and deltamethrin has been studied on the host-parasite couple Trialeurodes vaporariorum-Encarsia formosa. Long term trials were used under laboratory conditions. The insecticides were applied to the plant at all stages of host and parasite development. The two products studied showed some toxicity to E. formosa. Bioresmethrin, a poorly persistent insecticide, could be used with care in integrated control; deltamethrin, a highly persistent product, must be excluded. Attempts to obtain strains of E. formosa resistant to deltamethrin were made. The selection pressure applied during 21 successive generations failed to produce a significant and stable resistance level.

 

The toxicity of commonly used orchard chemicals to Stethorus nigripes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

Author: Edwards, B.A.B.; Hodgson, P.J.

Year: 1973

Journal: Journal of the Australian Entomology Society

Volume: 12

Pages: 222-224

Abstract: The toxicity of 40 pesticides commonly used in orchards to adults of the rpedatory coccinellid, Stethorus nigripes (Kapur), was determined.  Twelve of these chemicals including azinphos methyl 0.05%, carbaryl 0.1%, malathion 0.05% and aminocarb 0.075% proved to be highly toxic to the beetles while fifteen chemicals were relatively non-toxic.  These latter materials and possibly some with intermediate toxicity could be considered for use in an integrated control programme.

 

The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality

Author: Eijsackers, H.; Beneke, P.; Maboeta, M.; Louw, J. P. E.; Reinecke, A. J.

Year: 2005

Journal: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Volume: 62

Pages: 99-111

Abstract: To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard soil characteristics on the burrowing and dispersal behavior of earthworms. Moreover, the direct toxic action of copper oxychloride on different endpoints of the earthworms (survival and growth) was studied. Copper oxychloride had a negative impact on these endpoints (decreased growth and survival related to increased copper body content) as well as on the behavioral aspect (decreased burrowing rate and avoidance of copper-containing soil). Moreover, there was an inverse relation between burrowing activity and soil bulk density that could also be related to the copper content. This may lead to a decrease in sustainable soil quality in vineyards. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

Imidacloprid, a novel chlorotinyl insecticide: biological activity and agricultural imporatnce.

Author: Elbert, A.; Nauen, R.; Leight, W.

Year: 1998

Editor: Ishaaya, I.; Degheele, D.

Book Title: Insecticides with novel modes of action

City: Berlin, Germany

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Pages: 50-73

Short Title: Imidacloprid, a novel chlorotinyl insecticide: biological activity and agricultural imporatnce.

Abstract: This book conveys a wealth of information on pesticide chemistry, biochemical modes of action, biological activity, and theory of pesticide application for management programs. Emphasis is placed on novel biological insecticides which block certain stages in the development of pest insects. Special attention is given to insecticides with selective properties. Their role in integrated pest management programs and in insecticide resistance management strategies is discussed. The data and concepts presented are essential in establishing new technologies and developing novel groups of compounds which will determine our future agricultural practices. Everybody involved in crop protection and developing new insecticide chemistry from universities to chemical industries will benefit from this volume.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticide residues on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera : anthocoridae) and Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera : lygaeidae)

Author: Elzen, G. W.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 94

Pages: 55-59

Abstract: Laboratory-reared predators, the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), and big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Say), were exposed to 10 insecticides, including three newer insecticides with novel modes of action. using a residual insecticide bioassay. These species are important predators of several economic pests of cotton. Insecticides tested were: azinphos-methyl, imidacloprid, spinosad, tebufenozide, fipronil, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, cyfluthrin, profenofos, and malathion. There was considerable variation in response between both species tested to the insecticides. Tebufenozide and cyfluthrin were significantly less toxic to male O. insidiosus than malathion. Tebufenozide was also significantly less toxic to female O. insidiosus than malathion. Imidacloprid tebufenozide, and spinosad were significantly less toxic to male G. punctipes than chlorfenapyr, endosulfan, and fipronil. Spinosad, tebufenozide, and azinphos-methyl were significantly less toxic to female G. punctipesper than fipronil and endosulfan. Fecundity of O. insidiosus was significantly greater in the spinosad treatment compared with other treatments including the control. Consumption of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), eggs by O. insidiosus was significantly lower in the fipronil, profenofos, and cyfluthrin treatments compared with other treatments including the control. Consumption of II. zea eggs by G. punctipes was significantly lower in the malathion, profenofos, endosulfan, fipronil, azinphos-methyl, and imidacloprid treatments compared with the control. Egg consumption by G. punctipes was not significantly different in the tebufenozide treatment compared with the control. The lower toxicity of spinosad to C. punctipes is consistent with other reports. Based on these results, the following insecticides are not compatible with integrated pest management of cotton pasts: malathion, endosulfan, profenofos, fipronil, and cyfluthrin; while imidacloprid, tebufenozide, azinphos-methyl, and spinosad should provide pest control while sparing beneficial species.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides – On Geocoris punctipes

Author: Elzen, G. W.; Elzen, P. J.

Year: 1999

Journal: Southwestern Entomologist

Volume: 24

Pages: 199-205

Abstract: Adults of the big-eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes (Say), from a laboratory culture, were exposed to selected insecticides and insect growth regulators (IGR’s) using a foliar insecticide residue bioassay. Methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and spinosad were not toxic to male and female G. punctipes at the recommended rates, while chlorfenapyr produced only partial mortality. At recommended rates, tebufenozide and chlorfenapyr significantly reduced the fecundity of G. punctipes compared with a control. Most of the chemicals tested had no effect on host egg consumption of G. punctipes, whereas a recommended rate of chlorfenapyr increased egg consumption. Tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and chlorfenapyr appear very good for inclusion in IPM in cotton while chlorfenapyr seems fairly good.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides and an insect growth regulator on the boll weevil (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae)

Author: Elzen, G. W.; Maldonado, S. N.; Rojas, M. G.

Year: 2000

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Pages: 300-303

Abstract: A laboratory culture of Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the Loll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, was exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of insecticides and an insect growth regulator using a spray chamber bioassay. Materials tested were azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, fipronil, malathion, cyfluthrin, dimethoate, spinosad, methyl parathion, acephate, oxamyl, and tebufenozide. At full rates, spinosad was significantly less toxic to female C. grandis than other treatments except endosulfan. Fipronil and malathion were significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. Most of the chemicals tested were highly toxic to male C. grandis: spinosad was least toxic. At reduced rates, most of 4 selected chemicals tested were low in toxicity to C. grandis; however, a reduced rate of malathion was significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. No C. grandis pupae developed from parasitism during a 24-h treatment period with malathion or spinosad. The sex ratio of progeny from sprayed adults appeared to Le unaffected by the treatments.

 

Effects of foliar and soil insecticide applications on the collembolan community of an early set-aside arable field

Author: Endlweber, K.; Schadler, M.; Scheu, S.

Year: 2006

Journal: Applied Soil Ecology

Volume: 31

Pages: 136-146

Abstract: Effects of foliar and soil insecticide applications on collembolan density and community structure were investigated in an early set-aside arable field. Insecticides were applied separately and in combination to the soil surface (chlorpyrifos) and vegetation (dimethoate). The treatments were established to investigate effects of above- and below-ground insects on plant succession. Starting in 1997, the insecticides were applied from April to November at 2-week (dimethoate) or monthly intervals (chlorpyrifos). Samples were taken in 2000 prior to and after insecticide application in March and June, respectively. Both insecticides are lethal to Collembola and insecticide applications resulted in a strong decline in the density of total Collembola. Application of chlorpyrifos reduced collembolan density to a greater extent than dimethoate; the effect of the combined application on total collembolan numbers was similar to that of chlorpyrifos only. Collembolan numbers recovered after the insecticide applications in 1999, but in the treated plots populations were still reduced in March 2000 before the re-application of insecticide treatments in that year. The insecticide applications changed the dominance structure of the collembolan community, but had no effects on species composition. The results may be of relevance for the interpretation of studies on plant-insect herbivore interactions using insecticides. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

 

Effects of spinosad and indoxacarb on survival, development, and reproduction of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae)

Author: Galvan, T. L.; Koch, R. L.; Hutchison, W. D.

Year: 2005

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 34

Pages: 108-114

Abstract: Use of selective insecticides, such as spinosad and indoxacarb. that are more toxic to lepidopteran pests than to Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), could facilitate conservation of this predator in sweet corn integrated pest management (IPM), We examined the effects of spinosad and indoxacarb on survival, development, and reproduction of H. axyridis by spraying first instars and adult females. Treatments for the first instar assay were spinosad at 10.25, and 50% of the field rate (FR). indoxacarb at 10% FR. and water (untreated check). We recorded survival of each life stage, developmental time to adults and adult weight. Treatments for the adult female assay were spinosad at 50 and 100% FR, indoxacarb at 50% FR. and water (control), Each day. we recorded female survival and reproductive capacity. Indoxacarb decreased survival of first instars and adults, extended the developmental time for first instars to become adults, and reduced the fecundity of H. axyridis females. Spinosad decreased survival of first instars. extended the time for first instars to become adults, decreased weight gain, and reduced the fertility of H. axyridis females. Our results Suggest that spinosad and indoxacarb may reduce H. ayyridis population growth by affecting its survival, development, and reproduction. We also conclude that indoxacarb, when applied at 10% FR, has more lethal and sublethal effects oil H.axyridis than spinosad applied at 10, 25 or 50% FR. The importance of sublethal effects of insecticides. as well as acute toxicity. ill toxicological Studies with natural enemies is discussed within the context of biological control and IPM. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

Toxicity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults Trichogramma pretiosum

Author: Giolo, Fabrizio Pinheiro; Gruetzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Manzoni, Cristiane Gindri; De Lima, Crislaine Alves Barcellos; Noernberg, Sandro Daniel

Year: 2007

Journal: Bragantia

Volume: 66

Pages: 423-431

Abstract: The toxicity of sixteen commercial formulations of pesticides used in peach orchard was assessed on adults of Trichogramma pretiostim Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). The experiments were carried out using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) standard methodology, under laboratory conditions at temperature of 25 +/- 10 degrees C, relative humidity of 70 +/- 10% and 14h photophase. The tests were carried out by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates and assessed for the number of eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum adult female. Reduction in capacity of parasitism of T. pretiosum female compared with the control (treated with water) was used to measure the effect of the chemical. Pesticides were then classified into four categories, according to the reduction in parasitization (IOBC/WPRS): 1, harmless (<30%); 2, slightly harmful (30-79%); 3, moderately harmful (80-99%); 4, harmful (>99%). The fungicides (g of the active ingredient/100L, of water) calcium + copper (40+100), dodine (79), folpet (125), iprodion (75), mancozeb (160), mancozeb + copper oxichloride (88+60) and triforine (24) and the insecticide teflubenzuron (3.75) were considered harmless (class 1); the fungicide tebuconazol (20) and the mineral oil (800) were slightly harmful (class 2); the fungicide-acaricide sulphur (480) and the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (200) were moderately harmful (class 3); the insecticides fenitrothion (75), malathion (200), phosmet (100) and spinosad (6) were harmful (class 4) to T. pretiosum.

 

Side-effects of pesticides used in integrated production of peach on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Author: Giolo, F. P.; Grutzmacher, A. D.; Manzoni, C. G.; Fachinello, J. C.; Nornberg, S. D.; Stefanello Junior, G. J.

Year: 2005

Journal: Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura

Volume: 27

Pages: 222-225

Abstract: The side effects of carbaryl, dimethoate, captan, mancozeb, cyhexatin, glyphosate, trichlorfon and mineral oil, applied to control pests infesting peach, on the parasitoid T. pretiosum were determined. Captan and mancozeb had no adverse effects on the parasitoid. Cyhexatin and glyphosate were slightly harmful, whereas mineral oil was moderately harmful to the parasitoid. Dimethoate, trichlorfon, carbaryl and enxofre were harmful to the parasitoid.

 

Selectivity of six insecticides used in citrus crops on pupae and adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae)

Author: Godoy, M. S.; Carvalho, G. A.; Moraes, J. C.; Cosme, L. V.; Goussain, M. M.; Carvalho, C. F.; Morais, A. A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Neotropical Entomology

Volume: 33

Pages: 359-364

Abstract: The selectivity of the insecticides abamectin, lufenuron, fenbutatin oxide, tebufenozide, thiacloprid and deltamethrin used in citrus crops was evaluated for pupae and adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The experiments were conducted in the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, Brazil. The spraying was accomplished by means of Potter tower with volume of application of 1.5 +/- 0.5 mg/cm(2). After spraying, the pupae were kept in test tubes in a climatic chamber and the adults in PVC cages in a room at 25 +/- 2degreesC, 70 +/- 10% RH and 12h photophase. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with six products and ten replicates, each one composed of three pupae or a pair of adults. The action of lufenuron on males or females of C. externa was also evaluated under a completely randomized design with three treatments and ten replicates, each one composed of one pair. The insecticides were classified following the method established by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC). All compounds were selective to the pupae (E < 30% of mortality). However, thiacloprid and deltamethrin were toxic to the adults (E > 99% of mortality), whereas fenbutatin oxide and tebufenozide were selective. Lufenuron reduced the survival rate of the egg when sprayed on the females. Thus, the results indicate that only fenbutatin oxide and tebufenozide could be used with C. externa in integrated pest management programs in citrus crops.

 

Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration.

Author: Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Gu, P.

Year: 2003

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 96

Pages: 1388-1398

Abstract: The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was signiÞcantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyßuthrin.  Progeny production was signiÞcantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyßuthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also signiÞcantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a signiÞcant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during periods of vedalia beetle activity.

 

Potential for integrating eleven agricultural insecticides with the predatory bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera : Reduviidae)

Author: Grundy, P. R.; Maelzer, D.; Collins, P. J.; Hassan, E.

Year: 2000

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Pages: 584-589

Abstract: A problem for growers attempting to implement integrated pest management programs is the lack of information regarding the compatibility of insecticides with natural enemies. To provide information about this problem, we evaluated the acute and residual effects of 11 commonly used insecticides on nymphs of Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker) under both laboratory and field conditions. For each insecticide, the length of time that weathering residues caused >50% mortality was evaluated and compared against the LC50 (acute-toxicity) divided by the recommended field rate. Plots thus combined the acute and residual toxicity of each insecticide. Results suggested that carbaryl, esfenvalerate, endosulfan, and deltamethrin had low residual and acute toxicity to P. plagipennis, whereas chlorpyrifos, methomyl, and monocrotophos were highly toxic at low concentrations and left persistent harmful residues. Cypermethrin, methidathion, malathion, and dimethoate were moderately toxic. The potential use of these insecticides to supplement the control activity of P. plagipennis is discussed.

 

The side-effects of pesticides used in integrated production of peaches in Brazil on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hym., Trichogrammatidae)

Author: Grutzmacher, A. D.; Zimmermann, O.; Yousef, A.; Hassan, S. A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology

Volume: 128

Pages: 377-383

Abstract: The side-effects of six pesticides used on peaches in Brazil were tested on the hymenopteran egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae using four laboratory tests: (a) adult parasitoid exposure to fresh pesticide residue on glass plates (worse case); (b) direct spray of host eggs enclosing the parasitoid egg, larvae or pupae (less-exposed life stages); (c) exposure of adults to pesticide residues on plant leaves at different intervals after application (persistence); (d) Dose-response pesticide exposures of adults on glass plates. Two dose rates were used: (1) The highest recommended field dosage (FD) and (2) the predicted initial environmental concentrations (PIEC). The results showed that the preparations greatly differed in their initial toxicity and persistence. The insecticide Valient((R)) (methoxyphenozide) and the fungicide Venturol((R)) (dodine) were considered harmless to T. cacoeciae adults as they fell into the class 1 category according to the guidelines of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) when parasitoids were directly exposed to chemical residues. The insecticide/acaricide Assist((R)) (mineral oil) was slightly harmful at the rate of PIEC 0.4 (40% of FD) and moderately harmful at FD. Pesticides in the categories harmless and moderately harmful can be considered for use in integrated pest management (IPM). The fungicide/acaricide Kumulus DF(R) (sulphur) and the insecticides Dipterex((R)) 500 (triclorfon) and Lebaycid((R)) 500 (fenthion) were harmful at both concentrations. In the persistence test, Assist((R)) was short lived and therefore may in special cases (i.e. reduced direct contact) be considered for use in IPM, but Kumulus((R)) DF, Dipterex((R)) 500 and Lebaycid((R)) 500 constantly reduced parasitism between 77 and 100% and were rated as persistent (more than 30 days). The direct spray of parasitized host eggs at intervals after parasitism showed that Assist((R)) and Kumulus((R)) DF were harmless to the parasitoid egg, larvae and pupae within the host eggs. Dipterex((R)) 500 was slightly harmful when sprayed one day after parasitism (parasitoid egg) and moderately harmful to the other two stages (larvae and pupae). Lebaycid((R)) 500 was harmful to the parasitoid egg and larvae and moderately harmful to the pupae. The dose-response test showed that Kumulus((R)) DF and Dipterex((R)) 500 were toxic to T. cacoeciae. Kumulus((R)) DF was harmful from 1 PIEC 0.4 to 0.125 PIEC 0.4 dosages and was slightly harmful with 0.0625 PIEC 0.4 dosage. Dipterex((R)) 500 was harmful to T. cacoeciae in all the dosages tested.

 

Field evaluation of the effects of the insect growth regulator tebufenozide on entomophagous arthropods and pests of apples

Author: Gurr, G. M.; Thwaite, W. G.; Nicol, H. I.

Year: 1999

Journal: Australian Journal of Entomology

Volume: 38

Pages: 135-140

Abstract: Organophosphate insecticides are very widely used in commercial apple production to control fruit-attacking pests but their broad-spectrum activity constrains biological control of other pests. Compounds with narrow-spectrum activity are therefore desirable. The insect growth regulator (IGR) tebufenozide was compared with another IGR, fenoxycarb, and the organophosphate, azinphos-methyl, in a replicated field trial in the 1994/1995 apple-production season. Vacuum sampling of the tree foliage on five occasions during the growing season showed significantly lower populations of various natural enemies (spiders, lacewings and the specialist mite predator Stethorus spp. adults and larvae) in the azinphos-methyl treatment than in either of the two IGR treatments. The two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) was most numerous in the azinphos-methyl treatment. In 1995/1996, the entire trial area was placed under a tebufenozide treatment program to determine the extent to which natural enemy populations would recover when broad-spectrum insecticide (azinphos-methyl) use was halted. Populations of polyphagous natural enemies assumed levels broadly equivalent to those observed under IGR treatments the previous year. Numbers of Stethorus spp. were lower than in the 1994/1995 season, possibly because T. urticae (prey) populations were much reduced from the previous season’s densities. All three insecticide treatments were equally effective in controlling the lepidopteran pests, codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.)), lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas pastvittana (Walker)) and early season caterpillars (predominantly Helicoverpa punctigern (Wallengren)). Results indicate that tebufenozide provides good control of lepidopteran pests, while allowing the rapid build-up of natural enemies which contribute to control of other pests.

 

The effect of dimethoate and cypermethrin on soil-dwelling beetles under semi-field conditions

Author: Gyldenkaerne, S.; Ravn, H. P.; Halling-Sarensen, B.

Year: 2000

Journal: Chemosphere

Volume: 41

Pages: 1045-1057

Abstract: The effect of cypermethrin and dimethoate exposure on soil-dwelling beetles, in spring barley at different growth stages, of doses of up to eight times maximum field application rate has been investigated. Doses up to eight times maximum field application rate of cypermethrin did not have any acute effects on larger beetles, such as P. melanarius and C. erratus. Small beetles (A. bilineata, A. dorsale, B. lampros, B. obtustan) were not harmed by doses up to two times maximum field application rate. T. hypnorum was affected at maximum held rate. Dimethoate at maximum field application rate harmed all species, but in particular the smaller species. When dimethoate was applied in high foliage density fields in the summer, Very severe acute effects on spring bleeding beetles were found. In the autumn, when only a low crop cover existed, this very high effect was not observed. The severe effect in the summer may be explained by the mode of action of dimethoate on ‘old beetles’. The observed high toxic effect of dimethoate on spring breeders in the summer is expected only to have limited effect on the population, because the spring breeders at this time of the year have finished their egg depositing in the soil. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

The side-effects of pesticides on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hym., Trichogrammatidae), acute dose-response and persistence tests

Author: Hassan, S. A.; Hafes, B.; Degrande, P. E.; Herai, K.

Year: 1998

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie

Volume: 122

Pages: 569-573

Abstract: The side-effects of 21 pesticides were tested on the Hymenoptera egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae, using four different types of laboratory methods. The methods combined: (a) adult parasitoid exposure to fresh pesticide residue on glass plates – initial toxicity worse case to select harmless preparations, (b) direct spray of host eggs enclosing the parasitoid pupae (less susceptible life stage), (c) duration of harmful activity (persistence) on adults – select preparations that are less persistent and (d) dose-response exposures LD50 – to assess the risk margin. The results showed that the preparations (used at the highest recommended dose) greatly differed in their initial toxicity as well as in their persistence. The fungicide Topsin M(R) (thiophanat-methyl) and the herbicides Pyramin(R) (chloridazon), Butisan(R) S (metazachlor) and Banvel(R) 70 WG (dicamba) were harmless to T. cacoeciae. The insecticides Match(R) (lufenuron) and Admiral(R) (pyriproxifen), the fungicides Bavistin(R) (carbendazim), Aliette(R) (fosetyl) and Captan(R) 83 W (captan) as well as the herbicides Duplosan(R) 600 KV (mecoprop-p) and Focus(R) (cycloxydim) were slightly harmful. The fungicide Scala(R) (pyrimethanil) was moderately harmful. Telmion(R) (rape oil), Vertimec(R) (abamectin) and Scala were harmful in the initial toxicity test but only slightly persistent. These less persistent preparations are likely to have less impact on the natural enemy in the field. In the persistence test, Zolone Flow(R) (phosalon), Polo(R) (difenthiuron), Euparen(R) M (tolylfluanid), Dithane(R) M 45 (mancozeb), Kumulus(R) (sulphur) constantly reduced parasitism by between 90 and 100% and were rated as persistent. The direct spray of parasitized host eggs showed that Zolone Flow, Polo, Eupareum M, Dithane M 45, Scala and Touchdown(R); were harmless to the parasitoid pupae within the egg, that Telmion, Thiram(R) 80 WG and Kumulus were slightly harmful and Vertimec was moderately harmful. The dose-response test indicated a risk quotient (dose in g or ml product per ha/LD50 value) of spray drift for off-field parasitoids for the chemicals in the order of increasing risk as follows: Polo (1.33) followed by Thiram (3.62), Touchdown (7.54), Scala (10.39), Dithane M 45 (13.94), Telmion (27.04) and Zolone Flow_(39.34).

 

Effects of field-weathered residues of insect growth regulators on some Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of economic importance as biocontrol agents

Author: Hattingh, V.; Tate, B.

Year: 1995

Journal: Bulletin of Entomological Research

Volume: 85

Pages: 489-493

Abstract: Use of the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen (Nemesis(R)) for the control of red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on citrus in southern Africa has led to extensive disruption of the biocontrol of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) provided by the coccinellids Radolia cardinalis (Mulsant) and other indigenous Rodolia spp. Similar effects on field populations of Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius), a coccinellid predator of A. aurantii, have also been observed. The adverse effects of field-weathered residues of IGRs on the fecundity and egg viability of the coccinellids C. nigrita and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant were determined in a laboratory bioassay. Residues of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, and two chitin synthesis inhibitors, buprofezin (Applaud(R)) and triflumuron (Alsystin(R)), were tested. Exposure to residue-bearing leaves did not affect the number of eggs laid by Chilocorus nigrita, but a complete, or near complete failure of eggs to hatch ensued when adults were exposed to either 3, 7 or 19 week old weathered residues from a single application of pyriproxyfen or triflumuron. Three week old residues of buprofezin had the same effect, but both 7 and 19 week old residues no longer significantly reduced egg viability. Adults of both C. nigrita and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri commenced laying viable eggs within 20 days of being separated from all residue-bearing leaves. One week old residues of pyriproxyfen and triflumuron both significantly reduced progeny production by C. montrouzieri. Ten week old triflumuron residues were still detrimental to this species but pyriproxyfen residues of the same age were not. It was concluded that IGRs are not compatible with integrated pest management (IPM) for citrus in southern Africa, where coccinellid biocontrol agents play an important role.

 

 

Effects of methoxyfenozide, indoxacarb, and other insecticides on the beneficial egg parasitoid Trichogramma nr. brassicae (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) under laboratory and field conditions

Author: Hewa-Kapuge, S.; McDougall, S.; Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2003

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 96

Pages: 1083-1090

Abstract: Trichogramma nr. brassicae is a common egg parasitoid of Helicoverpa species in Australian processing tomatoes, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by insecticide applications. To identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with this species, the effects of seven insecticides, including newly introduced compounds and a surfactant, were screened in laboratory and glasshouse assays for their toxicity to the wasps. Assays involved direct applications on adults, residual effects on adults, and applications on life stages still inside the host. Methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb were not toxic to Trichogramma in any assay when applied at field rates. Naled and chlorfenapyr caused 100% mortality when directly applied to adults, and 95% mortality when adults were exposed to residues of these chemicals within 24 h of application. The effects of naled residues were short lived (<48 h). Naled and chlorfenapyr were also toxic when applied to Trichogramma developing inside host eggs, reducing emergence of adults by >25%. Imidacloprid, emamectin, and tau-fluvalinate were toxic in some experiments; they caused >97% mortality in adults I h after direct application and in residue assays they caused 23-64% mortality during the first 24 h. In field trials, methoxyfenozide had no harmful effects on emergence from sprayed parasitized eggs, whereas indoxacarb had a small impact (<8%) on emergence. Methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb are potentially suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for management of Helicaverpa because they do not influence adult survival or development of immature stages, whereas other chemicals need to be treated cautiously.

 

Compatibility of insect growth regulators with Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) control on poinsettias. 1. Laboratory assays.

Author: Hoddle, M.S.; van Driesche, S.M.; Lyon, S.M.; Sanderson, J.P.

Year: 2001

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 20

Pages: 122-131

Abstract: Abstract: The compatibility of five insect growth regulators (IGRs), buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb, pymetrozine, and kinoprene, were tested in the laboratory for compatibility with the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The survivorship of adult parasitoids foraging on poinsettia leaves with residues 6, 24, and 96 h of age was determined. The toxicity of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) patches treated with IGRs presented to female parasitoids 24 and 96 h posttreatment was quantified. survivorship of immature E. erenticus developing within B. argentifolii nymphs was determined by treating whitefly nymphs with IGRs 5 and 13 days postoviposition by female parasitoids. Finally, behavioral observations of female parasitoids foraging on IGR-treated and untreated B. argentifolii patches presented simultaneously were quantified to determine whether IGR residues had a repellant effect toward E. eremicus. Averaging ranks for IGSRs based on their compatibility with E. eremicus and their ability to kill B. argentifolii nymphs produced the following parasitoid compatibility order: buprofezin > fenoxycarb > pymetrozine = pyriproxyfen > kinoprene. Further work in greenhouses assessing the efficacy of buprofezin with E. eremicus for B. argentifolii control on poinsettias is recommended. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

 

Cholinesterase activity in the Tasmanian lacewing as a biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides

Author: Hodge, S; Longley, M; Booth, L; Heppelthwaite, V; O’Halloran, K

Year: 2000

Journal: Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology

Volume: 6

Pages: 109-116

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of two organophosphorus insecticides, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, on the activity of cholinesterase (ChE) in the Tasmanian lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae). Under controlled laboratory conditions, ChE activity was clearly inhibited by exposure to organophosphorus insecticides at concentrations an order of magnitude below the manufacturers’ recommendations for field applications. Following exposure to freshly sprayed foliage under field conditions, high mortality occurred during the first 24 hours, but by 48 hours, the acute toxicity of the pesticides was no longer apparent. In the survivors from these field experiments, there was no clear effect on ChE activity. These results cast doubt on the usefulness of ChE activity in this species as a robust biomarker of organophosphorus pesticide contamination for field purposes. However, ChE activity can be measured in M. tasmaniae exposed in the laboratory to provide supporting information regarding threshold levels for sub-lethal impacts of organophosphorus pesticide contamination. The short-term mortality responses of M. tasmaniae to organophosphorus pesticide exposure suggest that this organism has potential as a bioindicator species in the field.

 

Inundative releases of predatory stink bugs for control of Colorado potato beetle

Author: Hough-Goldstein, J.; Whalen, J.

Year: 1993

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 3

Pages: 343-347

Abstract: Release of Periflus bioculatus (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs at either 1.6/row-m (0.5/row-ft) or 9.8/row-m (3/row-ft) significantly reduced the number of both small and large larvae of the Colorado potato beetle in small plots. The number of Colorado potato beetle egg masses was significantly reduced by the high release rate as well as by the low rate in combination with a reduced spray schedule of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis Berliner. Potato plant defoliation was significantly reduced by the high release rate. Three systemic soil insecticides (disulfoton, phorate, and aldicarb) caused significant mortality of P. bioculatus nymphs exposed to potato foliage 11 weeks after soil application. Four foliar insecticides had no effect on P. bioculatus nymphs exposed to recently sprayed foliage.

 

Pesticide safety and beneficial arthropods.

Author: James, D.G.

Year: 2001

Periodical Title: Agriculture and Environmental News

Volume: 188

Pages: 8-12

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Toxicity of imidacloprid to Galendromus occidentalis, Neoseiulus fallacis and Amblyseius andersoni (Acari : Phytoseiidae) from hops in Washington State, USA

Author: James, D. G.

Year: 2003

Journal: Experimental and Applied Acarology

Volume: 31

Pages: 275-281

Abstract: The toxicity of systemic and spray formulations of imidacloprid to Galendromus occidentalis Nesbitt, Neoseiulus fallacis Garman and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) from hop yards in Washington State was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. The field rate of imidacloprid for hop aphids (0.13 g a.i.l) was highly toxic (100% mortality) to G. occidentalis and N. fallacis but less so (35.6% mortality) to A. andersoni. Half and quarter rates were also highly toxic to G. occidentalis and N. fallacis (79.5-100% mortality) but again had lower toxicity to A. andersoni (8.2-31.3% mortality). Systemic toxicity (via consumption of spider mite motiles feeding on leaf discs cut from imidacloprid-treated (0.13 g a.i.l) dwarf bean plants) was also high for G. occidentalis (98.3% mortality), as was toxicity from dried residues (93-98% mortality). Residual toxicity to N. fallacis was also high (89% mortality). The significance of these results for biological control of spider mites in hops and other crops is discussed.

 

Effect of buprofezin on survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis, Stethorus punctum picipes (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae), Orius tristicolor (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera : Geocoridae)

Author: James, D. G.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 97

Pages: 900-904

Abstract: The effect of buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Stethorits punctum picipes Casey, Orius tristicolor (White), Geocoris pallens Stal, and Geocoris punctipes (Say), was examined in a series of laboratory bioassays. Very few H. axyridis larvae (3.1%) treated with buprofezin reached adulthood, although 65% of treated pupae emerged successfully. Buprofezin caused no mortality to eggs of S. punctum picipes but 71.1% of treated early instar larvae failed to complete development. Eighty percent of treated late instars and 92.3% of pupae produced viable adults. Early instar nymphs of O. tristicolor were unaffected by buprofezin, whereas 47.7 and 85% of G. punctipes and G. pallens nymphs, respectively, failed to complete development. Treated eggs of G. pallens hatched successfully. The use of buprofezin in integrated pest management in Washington state wine grapes is discussed.

The effect of imidacloprid on survival of some beneficial arthropods

Author: James, David G.; Vogele, Beverley

Year: 2001

Journal: Plant Protection Quarterly

Volume: 16

Pages: 58-62

Abstract: In laboratory bioassays, the field rate of imidacloprid registered for control of aphids in stone fruit (0.0053% a.i.), was highly toxic to Oechalia schellembergii (Guerin-Meneville) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Archimantis sp. (Mantodea: Mantidae), partially toxic to Coccinella transversalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and non-toxic to Pristhesancus plagipennis Walker (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and Dicranolaius bellulus (Guerin-Meneville) (Coleoptera: Melyridae). This rate was also harmless to the predatory mites, Typhlodromus dossei Schicha and T. doreenae Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae), although a ten-fold increase in rate caused 19% mortality in T. doreenae. Populations of Stethorus vagans (Blackburn), Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), coccinellid and neuropteran larvae, were significantly reduced for 4-9 weeks by a single application of imidacloprid (0.0053% a.i.) to an apricot orchard. Populations of D. bellulus, spiders and parasitic Hymenoptera were not reduced by imidacloprid. The variability of imidacloprid in its impact on different species of beneficial arthropods is discussed with reference to its use in integrated pest management programs.

 

Side-effects of pesticides on adults of Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani-Perez (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the laboratory: results of the 8th Joint Pesticide Testing Programme

Author: Jansen, J. P.

Year: 2000

Journal: Bulletin OILB/SROP

Volume: 23

Pages: 65-72

Abstract: Fourteen of the 21 pesticides from the 8th JPTP were tested on adult Aphidius rhopalosiphi at their maximum recommended field rate on glass plates. Bavistin [carbendazim], Dithane M45 [mancozeb], Thianozan [thiram] and Topsin M [thiophanate-methyl] were determined as harmless to the parasitoid in the laboratory experiment. Captan, Euparen [dichlofluanid], Kumulus [sulfur], Match [difenzoquat], Polo [diafenthiuron], Scala [pyrimethanil] and Telmion [a formulated rapeseed oil product], which were slightly harmful, and Admiral [pyriproxyfen], Vertimec [abamectin] and Zolone [phosalone], which were harmful, need further tests in the laboratory or in the field for an adequate assessment of their side effects on A. rhopalosiphi. The effect of insect growth regulators like Match and Polo on reproduction was limited to the first generation.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on two parasitoids attacking Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae)

Author: Jones, W. A.; Ciomperlik, M. A.; Wolfenbarger, D. A.

Year: 1998

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 11

Pages: 70-76

Abstract: The long-term goal of this report is the documentation of the sublethal effects of pesticides to parasitic Hymenoptera. The objective of this laboratory study was to determine if parasitoids can be conserved or augmented against Bemisia argentifolii in crops where insecticides are also applied for other pests. Lethal and sublethal effects were measured for six insecticides applied in the laboratory to host larvae containing two different developmental stages each of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet from Spain and a common local species Eretmocerus tejanus Rose and Zolnerowich. Survival varied according to insecticide and developmental stage. When applied 5 days after parasitoid oviposition, thiodicarb allowed the highest rates of adult emergence by E. tejanus (65.9%) and E. mundus (35.8%). Endosulfan was the next least-toxic material, followed by the organophosphates azinphos-methyl and methyl parathion, and the insect growth regulator buprofezin. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was most toxic to both parasitoids in both developmental stages. When applied just before the expected emergence of adults, survival ranged from 47.2 to 92.2% with buprofezin, thiodicarb, and endosulfan. Some significant differences among treatments in longevity of emerged adults were detected, but females of both parasitoid species that survived the least-toxic materials were able to mate and reproduce. These findings demonstrate that there exists a wide range of responses by Bemisia parasitoids across a variety of chemicals, and that sublethal effects on the subsequent longevity and reproductive ability among survivors of the least-toxic chemicals were not severe. This study demonstrates the value of assessing sublethal effects of pesticides by showing that adult parasitoids that survive pesticides applied to immature stages within their host do not necessarily suffer latent detrimental effects on important biological parameters.

 

Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Phytoseiidae)

Author: Kavousi, A.; Talebi, K.

Year: 2003

Journal: Experimental and Applied Acarology

Volume: 31

Pages: 51-58

Abstract: Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm(2) or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E = 90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E = – 3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E = 59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

 

Toxicity of insecticides to conccinella-repanda thunberg (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

Author: Kay, I. R.

Year: 1979

Journal: Journal of the Australian Entomological Society

Volume: 18

Pages: 233-234

Abstract: Coccinella repanda larvae and adults were tested by topical application to determine their tolerance levels to nine insecticides. Based on 48 hour LD5O values the ascending order of toxicity to larvae was endosulfan, pirimicarb, thiometon, formothion. chlorpyrifos, demeton-S-methyl, dimethoate, phosphamidon and monocrotophos, and to adults the order was endosulfan, pirimicarb. formothion, chlorpyrifos, thiometon, demeton-S-methyl, phosphamidon. dimet hoate and monocrotophos.  The study was conducted as an aid in developing pest management programmes for Therioaphis rrifolii f. maculaia and Acryihosiphon kondoi in lucerne as C. repanda is an important predator of the aphids.

 

 

Comparison of two field-scale approaches for the study of effects of insecticides on polyphagous predators in cereals

Author: Kennedy, P. J.; Conrad, K. F.; Perry, J. N.; Powell, D.; Aegerter, J.; Todd, A. D.; Walters, K. F. A.; Powell, W.

Year: 2001

Journal: Applied Soil Ecology

Volume: 17

Pages: 253-266

Abstract: In the UK, recommended field trial protocols for assessing within-season effects of insecticides on non-target arthropods in cereals utilise either large (1 ha or greater) open plots or small (not less than 10 m x 10 m) enclosed plots. Prior to this study, no direct comparison of the relative effectiveness and reliability in discerning such effects of these two approaches had been attempted. In a 2-year study, the effects of dimethoate and pirimicarb on polyphagous predators were investigated using both small enclosed plots and large open plots in the same experiment. The activity-density of Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Linyphiidae was measured using pitfall traps over at least five pre- and four post-treatment weeks in each year. More species were caught in greater numbers in large open plots than in small enclosed plots. Both approaches caught sufficient individuals to analyse effects of insecticides on whole taxonomic families but too few individuals were caught in small enclosed plots to analyse effects on species other than those most abundant. More individuals were caught per trap and catch variability was less in large open plots than in small enclosed plots. The impact of plot type on pitfall trap catch was greatest for Carabidae and least for Staphylinidae. Treatment with dimethoate led to significant short-term reductions in catches of Carabidae and Linyphiidae, while treatment with pirimicarb had no significant effect on polyphagous predators. Neither of the insecticides applied in 1993 affected pitfall trap catches, in the following year, of predators that were active pre-treatment. No significant interactions were recorded between plot type and insecticide treatment, but low and variable pitfall trap catches in small enclosed plots makes the detection of such interactions difficult. Small enclosed plots, with pitfall traps placed centrally, should not be used in field trials as an alternative to large open plots without modifying sampling methods to increase trap captures and decrease overall variability in numbers caught. The use of more traps, more efficient trapping and greater replication all need to be investigated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

 

Effects of agrochemicals on life-history parameters of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera : Braconidae)

Author: Kobori, Y.; Amano, H.

Year: 2004

Journal: Applied Entomology and Zoology

Volume: 39

Pages: 255-261

Abstract: The contact and ingestion toxicities of selected agrochemicals applied at the standard field rate against adult females and pupae in host mummies of a native parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis were studied using several bioassays. Fresh residues of five insecticides (cartap, chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate, permethrin and imidacloprid) were found to be highly toxic against adult females as compared with the pupae in mummies. Evaluation of the residual effects of these five insecticides on cabbage foliage showed that cartap and imidacloprid were highly persistent. In the same assay, two IGRs (chlorfluazuron and lufenuron) and a fungicide (copper oxychloride) were harmless against adult females. When these agrochemicals were fed orally at the field rate, the mortality of adult females ranged from 13.3 to 46.7%. Ingestion of copper oxychloride had a slightly negative effect on parasitism.

 

Impact of halofenozide, imidacloprid, and bendiocarb on beneficial invertebrates and predatory activity in turfgrass

Author: Kunkel, B. A.; Held, D. W.; Potter, D. A.

Year: 1999

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 92

Pages: 922-930

Abstract: Imidacloprid, a chloronicotinyl, and halofenozide, a bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid agonist, recently have become widely used for residual control of scarabaeid grubs in turf. We evaluated their impact on earthworms and beneficial arthropods in field trials, and tested whether application in late spring might interfere with subsequent predation on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Humagel), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, life stages in Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L., turf. Bendiocarb, a short-residual carbamate, was included for comparison. Imidacloprid caused some short-term suppression of earthworms, whereas bendiocarb had severe impact on earthworms, mesostigmatid mites, and Collembola Pitfall trap captures of predatory coleopteran larvae and hister beetles were reduced by imidacloprid and bendiocarb, but abundance of ants, carabids, spiders, and staphylinids was largely unaffected. Halofenozide caused no reduction in abundance of any group of beneficial invertebrates. Scavenging on fresh-frozen A. ipsilon larvae was reduced for approximate to 1 wk after use of imidacloprid or bendiocarb, but predation rates on eggs or pupae of A. ipsilon, and on implanted P. japonica eggs. were unaffected. This work suggests that application of halofenozide or imidacloprid, followed by irrigation, will have relatively little impact on beneficial invertebrates, although both compounds are persistent enough to control P. japonica and Cyclocephala spp. grubs eclosing several months later.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of bendiocarb, halofenozide, and imidacloprid on Harpalus pennsylvanicus (Coleoptera : carabidae) following different modes of exposure in turfgrass

Author: Kunkel, B. A.; Held, D. W.; Potter, D. A.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 94

Pages: 60-67

Abstract: Routes by which nontarget predatory insects can be exposed to turfgrass pesticides include topical, residual, and dietary exposure. We used each of these routes to evaluate potential lethal or sublethal effects of two novel turfgrass insecticides, imidacloprid and halofenozide, and a carbamate, bendiocarb, on survival, behavior, and fecundity of the ground beetle Harpalus pennsylvanicus DeGeer. Field-collected carabids were exposed to direct spray applications in turf plots, fed food contaminated by such applications, or exposed to irrigated or nonirrigated residues on turf cores. Halofenozide caused no apparent acute, adverse effects through topical, residual, or dietary exposure. Moreover, the viability of eggs laid by females fed halofenozide-treated food once, or continuously for 30 d, was not reduced. In contrast, topical or dietary exposure of carabids to bendiocarb inevitably was lethal. Exposure to imidacloprid by those routes caused high incidence of sublethal, neurotoxic effects including paralysis, impaired walking, and excessive grooming. Intoxicated beetles usually recovered within a few days in the laboratory, but in the field, they were shown to be highly vulnerable to predation by ants. One-time intoxication by imidacloprid did not reduce females’ fecundity or viability of eggs. There was no apparent behavioral avoidance of insecticide residues, or of insecticide-treated food. Carabids exposed to dry residues on turfgrass cores suffered high mortality from bendiocarb, and some intoxication from imidacloprid, but these effects were greatly reduced by posttreatment irrigation. Implications for predicting hazards of insecticides to beneficial invertebrates in turfgrass are discussed.

 

Assessing delayed and acute toxicity of five formulated fungicides to Osmia lignaria Say and Apis mellifera

Author: Ladurner, E.; Bosch, J.; Kemp, W. P.; Maini, S.

Year: 2005

Journal: Apidologie

Volume: 36

Pages: 449-460

Abstract: The delayed and acute toxicity of benomyl (Benlate(R)), captan (Captan 50WP), iprodione ( Rovral.), propiconazole ( Orbit.), and neem oil ( Trilogy.) to two crop pollinators, A. mellifera and O. lignaria, was evaluated. Survival after contact and oral single exposure to high doses of the pesticides was compared to survival of controls with the dosing vehicle. LD50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h from exposure were determined. Contact and oral exposure to benomyl and iprodione did not affect survival of any of the two species. Contact exposure to neem oil affected survival of A. mellifera. Orally administered propiconazole showed delayed and acute toxicity to both species. Captan severely limited survival of O. lignaria. The tested fungicides seemed to be safe to both bee species at the recommended rates, with the exception of captan to O. lignaria. To our knowledge, this is the first complete contact and oral toxicity test on an Osmia species.

 

Effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor buprofezin on survival and development of immatures of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae)

Author: Liu, T. X.; Chen, T. Y.

Year: 2000

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Pages: 234-239

Abstract: Effects of buprofezin (Applaud), a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on survival and development of eggs, three instars, and pupae of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) were determined in the laboratory. Buprofezin at three tested concentrations (100, 500, and 1,000 mg [AI]/liter) did not affect the viability and development of eggs when the eggs were heated, or third instars and pupae when those stages were treated. Although the degree of effects by buprofezin on larvae varied with instar, buprofezin at the higher concentrations (500 and 1,000 mg [AI]/liter) reduced survival rates 17-47% and prolonged the overall development from first instars to adult emergence by 2 or 3 d when first instars were treated, indicating that time first instar is the most vulnerable stage. When second instars were treated, the survival of C. rufilabris from second instars to pupae was not significantly affected. However, the developmental time from second instar to adult emergence was longer in the treatments with the highest concentration (1,000 mg [AI]/liter) than that with the lowest concentration (100 mg [AI]/liter). The compatibility of buprofezin with natural enemies in integrated pest management programs is discussed.

 

Effects of some insect growth regulators on Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), well known predator of Icerya purchasi Maskell (Homopterta: Monophlebidae)

Author: Loia, M.; Viggiani, G.

Year: 1992

Journal: Proceedings of the International Society for Citriculture

Volume: 3

Pages: 961-963

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Effects of insect growthh regulators on Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a non-target enemy of citrus red scale, Aonidella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in southern Africa: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

Author: Magagula, C.N.; Samways, M.J.

Year: 2000

Journal: African Entomologist

Volume: 8

Pages: 47-56

Abstract: Chilocorus nigritus (Fabricius) is one of the major coccinellid predators of the citrus pest Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) in southern Africa. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out on eggs, larvae and adults of this ladybird to determine the effects of three insect growth regulators (IGRs) used against citrus pests in the region. Two chitin synthesis inhibitors, buprofezin and teflubenzuron, and a juvenile hormone analog, pyriproxyfen, were applied to C. nigritus populations at the recommended dosages. Mortality and development of egg and larval stages, as well as mortality and fecundity of the adults were recorded. Laboratory experiments indicated that, of the three IGRs tested, buprofezin was the most detrimental compound, especially to larval stages, irrespective of whether the larvae were fed IGR-treated A. aurantii directly or sprayed with IGRs. Immediate larval mortality from pyriproxyfen and teflubenzuron was not significantly different from the controls. None of the larvae that were fed with IGR-treated A. aurantii pupated. By contrast, larvae that had only been sprayed with IGRs pupated, but no adults emerged. Adult fecundity was not affected by exposure to IGRs, either in the laboratory or in the field, but all eggs exposed to IGRs failed to hatch. Although larvae developed to the adult stage in the field experiments, the IGRs’ ovicidal activity and effects on immature stages still had a detrimental effect on C. nigritus population levels. As a result, spraying of IGRs is likely to impede C. nigritus population increases in citrus orchards. This emphasizes the need to avoid spraying during C. nigritus population increases should the use of IGRs be unavoidable. Insect growth regulator’s impact on non-target species still requires further consideration, especially with the incorporation of these chemicals into integrated pest management programmes.

 

Effect of pesticides on spiders occurring on apple and citrus in Israel

Author: Mansour, F.

Year: 1987

Journal: Phytoparasitica

Volume: 15

Pages: 43-50

Abstract: Field experiments in an apple orchard and in a citrus grove were carried out to evaluate the effect of four commercial pesticides in common use in Israel against apple and citrus pests, on the spider populations inhabiting the trees. The spider populations on apple were markedly suppressed by the pesticides, the order of toxicity being Talstar (biphenate) >Mavrik (fluvalinate) > Smash (fenpropathrin) > Dursban (chlorpyrifos). When grapefruit trees were treated with carbaryl + formothion, 232 spiders were sampled in the unsprayed plot, 55 days after treatment, as compared with only 11 spiders in the treated plot. Two and 7 days after treatment with chlorobenzilate, the sample from the treated plot numbered 68 and 55 spiders, respectively, as compared with 50 spiders collected 24 h before treatment. In addition, laboratory tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility of the spider Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch to 17 pesticides. When the spiders were exposed to grapefruit leaves which had been dipped 1 h previously for 5 sec in the aqueous emulsions of the pesticides, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, phosphamidon and biphenate caused 100%, and cypermethrin and fluvalinate 60% mortality, whereas all the other pesticides tested – acaricides, fungicides and herbicides – caused about 10-40% mortality.

 

Influence of pesticide treatments on the dynamics of whiteflies and associated parasitoids in snap bean fields

Author: Manzano, M. R.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Cardona, C.

Year: 2003

Journal: Biocontrol

Volume: 48

Pages: 685-693

Abstract: To determine the influence of pesticide treatments on the population dynamics of the whiteflies Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and their naturally occurring parasitoids, we performed field experiments on insecticide sprayed and unsprayed fields during a cropping season of snap bean in Pradera, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Substantially larger populations of whitefly nymphs occurred in the unsprayed field than in the sprayed field. Parasitoids were more frequent in unsprayed than in sprayed fields with Encarsia nigricephala Dozier being more prevalent than Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker. In sprayed fields the nymphs parasitized by E. nigricephala exceeded the unparasitized whitefly nymphs at the end of the cropping season. Our results suggest that while under current agricultural practices whiteflies on snap beans cannot be exclusively controlled by naturally occurring parasitoids, parasitoids may be integrated with chemical control in order to reduce crop damage.

 

Susceptibility of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) adults to fungicides used to control apple diseases

Author: Manzoni, C. G.; Grutzmacher, A. D.; Giolo, F. P.; de Lima, C. A. B.; Nornberg, S. D.; Muller, C.; Harter, W. D.

Year: 2006

Journal: Neotropical Entomology

Volume: 35

Pages: 223-230

Abstract: This study evaluated the susceptibility under laboratory conditions of Trichogrammapretiosum Riley adults to fungicides recommended by the Integrated Producfion of Apple (IPA). The bioassays were carried out using the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC), West Palearctic Regional Section (VvTRS) standard protocols. Twelve selected fungicides were studied in the doses (g or ml active ingredient/100 L) captan 1 (0.115), captan 2 (0.120), kresoxim-methyl (0.0 10), sulphur 1 (AG) (0.480), sulphur 2 (0.480), folpet (0.105), mancozeb (0.160), pyraclostrobin (0.010), tebuconazole (0.010), tetraconazole (0.005), thiophanate-methyl (0.050) and triforine (0.024). Distilled water was used as the blank treatment and the insecticide triclorfon (0.150) as a positive control. The parasitoids were exposed to dry residues applied on glass plates. The reduction in the capacity of parasitism was used to measure the effect of the chemical in comparison to the blank treatment. Each treatment was replicated four times. The results allowed us to classify the fungicides tested in four categories: 1, harmless (< 30%); 2, slightly harmful (30-79%); 3, moderately harmful (80-99%); and 4, harinful (> 99%). 75% of the tested substances were classified as selective (classes 1and 2) to the parasitoid. The fungicides captan 1, captan 2, kTesoximmethyl, folpet, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl and triforine were harmless; mancozeb was slightly harmful; sulphur 1(AG) and tetraconazole were moderately harmful and sulphur 2 was harmful. These findings should be taken into account when selecting fungicides to spray apple orchards against fungi diseases to preserve the egg parasitoid T pretiosum.

 

Compatibility of chemical disease and insect management practices used in New York vineyards with biological control by Anagrus spp. (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae), parasitoids of Erythroneura leafhoppers

Author: Martinson, T.; Williams, L.; English-Loeb, G.

Year: 2001

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 22

Pages: 227-234

Abstract: Toxicity to Anagrus spp. of fungicides and insecticides used in grape production was assessed with laboratory and field bioassays. Field-equivalent rates of fungicides were relatively nontoxic to Anagrus spp. adults in laboratory bioassays. In bioassays with field-weathered residues, sulfur (9600 ppm) caused elevated mortality of adults for 14 to 21 days posttreatment. Residues of microencapsulated methyl parathion (600 and 1200 ppm) increased mortality relative to the control up to 43 days posttreatment. Duration of elevated mortality of adults exposed to carbaryl was dose dependent and ranged from 14 (at 1200 ppm) to > 43 days (at 4800 ppm). Residues of carbaryl and methyl parathion applied over parasitized eggs had little effect on emergence, but may have delayed development. In a field trial, adults trapped in carbaryl-treated plots were significantly reduced starting 3 weeks after treatment. Subsequent lower trap catches may have been related to effects of residues on Anagrus spp. adults or to lower leafhopper egg densities in treated Plots. (C) 2001 Academic Press.

 

Effects of a broad spectrum and biorational insecticides on parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae)

Author: McCravy, K. W.; Dalusky, M. J.; Berisford, C. W.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 94

Pages: 112-115

Abstract: We examined effects of aerial application of acephate (Orthene), Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki Berliner (Foray), and tebufenozide (Mimic) on larval/pupal parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in the southwestern Georgia coastal plain. Parasitism of tip moths in acephate-treated plots was significantly lower than in untreated plots. Bacillus thuringiensis and tebufenozide showed no significant effects on parasitism. A tachinid, Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich, comprised a significantly greater proportion of emerging parasitoids in acephate-treated than in untreated control plots, whereas a chalcidid, Haltichella rhyacioniae Gahan, was less abundant in the acephate-treated plots. Acephate has a negative, but somewhat species-specific, impact on tip moth parasitism.

 

Effects of three modern insecticides, pyriproxyfen, spinosad and tebufenozide, on survival and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea adults

Author: Medina, P.; Budia, F.; Del Estal, P.; Vinuela, E.

Year: 2003

Journal: Annals of Applied Biology

Volume: 142

Pages: 55-61

Abstract: Three novel insecticides, pyriproxyfen, spinosad and tebufenozide, were evaluated for their effect on survival and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea adults using two methods of exposure: direct contact and ingestion. Pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide proved to be harmless to adult survival, whereas spinosad 72 h after treatment reduced the number of adults by 39.8% and 87.2% in topical and ingestion treatment at the maximum concentration recommended (800 mg a.i. litre(-1)). Fecundity was not affected irrespective of the insecticide or time of application (before or after the onset of oviposition). Concerning fertility, only pyriproxyfen exerted a negative effect on hatching when the eggs were deposited by females treated by ingestion in the post-oviposition period at the highest concentration tested (150 mg a.i. litre(-1)).

 

Compatibility of spinosad, tebufenozide and azadirachtin with eggs and pupae of the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) under laboratory conditions

Author: Medina, P.; Budia, F.; Tirry, L.; Smagghe, G.; Vinuela, E.

Year: 2001

Journal: Biocontrol Science and Technology

Volume: 11

Pages: 597-610

Abstract: Under laboratory conditions, the toxicity of three novel insecticides, spinosad (Tracer(R)), tebufenozide (Mimic(R)) and azadirachtin (Align(R)), was tested against eggs and pupae of the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). In a first series of assays, eggs were dipped in an aqueous concentration and no ovicidal activity was scored for the three insecticides. In the second, when females were ovipositing on treated substrate for 24 h, fecundity and hatching percentages were similar as compared to controls and the offspring developed normally until the adult stage. However, spinosad, at the highest concentrations tested, caused a slight, significant reduction in the adult life span and fecundity. In a third series of experiments, pupae developed into normal adults after topical treatment for the three insecticides. Herewith, a pharmacokinetic study indicated low accumulation in the body after pupal cuticle penetration when administrating C-14-labelled insecticide. Fourthly, pupation of last-instar larvae in treated substrate was normal for spinosad and tebufenozide. Only azadirachtin caused a slight reduction in the number of pupae and adults; however, fecundity and fertility of surviving adults was normal. In conclusion, the current results indicate that the three insecticides are not toxic to eggs and pupae of C. carnea.

 

Toxicity and absorption of azadirachtin, diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, and tebufenozide after topical application in predatory larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae)

Author: Medina, P.; Smagge, G.; Budia, F.; Tirry, L.; Vinuela, E.

Year: 2003

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 32

Pages: 196-203

Abstract: Susceptibility of the generalist predator, the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), to the insect growth regulators azadirachtin, diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, and tebufenozide was tested in the laboratory. Third instars were topically treated with different doses of formulated materials of each compound by direct topical exposure. At maximum field-recommended dose, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide were harmless to C. carnea, whereas azadirachtin and diflubenzuron were harmful (respective LD(90)s were 24.5 and 6.9 ng active ingredient [AI] per insect). At sublethal doses of azadirachtin and diflubenzuron, females laid fertile eggs, but azadirachtin caused a slight negative effect on oviposition. Pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide had no effect on oviposition and egg fertility. As a second approach of this study, toxicity data are discussed in relation to the rate of penetration and excretion after topical application. One hour after administration, approximate to80% of pyriproxyfen had penetrated; whereas for diflubenzuron and tebufenozide, only percentages of 10-20% were recorded in the same time interval. However, although pyriproxyfen penetration was fast and high, most of the compound was also quickly eliminated via excretion. Our data suggest that the use of azadirachtin and diflubenzuron hi combination with C. carnea in integrated pest management (IPM) programs should be carefully evaluated. Pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide are considered to be safe for C. carnea.

 

Topical toxicity of pesticides used in Virginia vineyards to the predatory mite, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman)

Author: Metzger, J. A.; Pfeiffer, D. G.

Year: 2002

Journal: Journal of Entomological Science

Volume: 37

Pages: 329-337

Abstract: Slide dip bioassays were conducted to determine the direct toxicity of insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, and herbicides commonly used in vineyards in Virginia to Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a predatory mite under consideration as a biological control agent for spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Among the insecticides and acaricides tested in the laboratory, carbaryl, azinphos-methyl, phosmet, cyhexatin, and pyridaben caused significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) higher mortality than the control treatment. None of the fungicides tested were toxic to the predator, but three herbicides caused high mortality. Glufosinate caused 100% mortality after 24 h, and both oxyfluorfen and paraquat had adverse effects on N. fallacis. The use of materials that were found to be toxic to the predator may not be compatible with releases of N. fallacis into Virginia vineyards. However, incorporating materials that appear to have no direct toxicity to the predator into an integrated pet management program could improve the survival rate of released N. fallacis while still protecting this high value crop from other pests.

 

Responses of two ladybeetles to eight fungicides used in Florida citrus: implications for biological contro

Author: Michaud, J.P.

Year: 2001

Journal: Journal of Insect Science

Volume: 1

Abstract: Two ladybeetles, Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis, were exposed in the laboratory to eight fungicide formulations commonly used in citrus production in Florida. Both benomyl and the combination of copper and petroleum oil proved toxic to larvae of C. sanguinea that were exposed to concentrations corresponding to recommended field rates, either as leaf residues or in topical spray applications. Larvae of C. sanguinea also suffered significant mortality when exposed to neem oil as a leaf residue, but not after topical application. Larvae of H. axyridis exposed to these compounds completed development with the same success as control larvae in all trials. However, H. axyridis larvae exhibited slower development following exposure to leaf residues of ferbam applied at twice the recommended rate. Exposure to azoxystrobin as a leaf residue at twice the recommended concentration resulted in accelerated larval development in both species. No compounds appeared repellent to adult beetles of either species. Adult beetles of both species were observed resting on portions of filter paper treated with fosetyl-Al more often than on untreated, control portions. Azoxystrobin, ferbam and mefenoxam similarly arrested the movement of adult C. sanguinea, whereas benomyl and the copper and petroleum oil combination arrested the movement of adult H. axyridis. The differential sensitivity of the two coccinellid species is discussed in the context of the potential displacement of the indigenous C. sanguinea by the invasive H. axyridis.

 

Non-target impact of chlorpyrifos on soil arthropods associated with no-tillage cornfields in Brazil

Author: Michereff, M.; Guedes, R. N. C.; Della-Lucia, T. M. C.; Michereff, M. F. F.; Cruz, I.

Year: 2004

Journal: International Journal of Pest Management

Volume: 50

Pages: 91-99

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to assess the side-effects of chlorpyrifos on springtails, ants and oribatid mites associated with the soil surface of no-tillage cornfields in Brazil. Three 0.3 ha cornfields were divided into plots and, during tasseling, the plants in areas to be treated were sprayed twice with insecticide, with a 3 day interval. Pitfall traps were used to sample soil arthropods 1 week before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 weeks after spraying. Principal components analysis detected no negative effect of insecticide chlorpyrifos on the assemblage of soil arthropods. Nonetheless, the activity of the ant Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith) was lower 2 weeks after spraying but recovered afterwards, while the frequency of Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, was significantly reduced only at the third week after spraying, and did not show any recovery until the end of the study. Chlorpyrifos did not decrease the overall abundance of Collembola. However, it had a significant impact on the members of the order Symphypleona, there being significantly lower captures of Sminthurides spp. soon after chlorpyrifos spraying without any sign of increase afterwards. There was no effect on oribatid mites. Our results, overall, suggest that the impact of chlorpyrifos on soil arthropods from tropical crop fields can be less severe than expected.

 

Toxicity of imidacloprid to selected arthropod predators in the laboratory

Author: Mizell, R. F.; Sconyers, M. C.

Year: 1992

Journal: Florida Entomologist

Volume: 75

Pages: 277-280

 

Effects of selected fungicides on growth and development of larval honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera : Apidae)

Author: Mussen, E. C.; Lopez, J. E.; Peng, C. Y. S.

Year: 2004

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 33

Pages: 1151-1154

Abstract: Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of incorporating selected almond fungicides into the diet of larval honey bees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus. One-day-old larvae, from mixed Italian stocks, were grafted to basic larval diet or basic diet containing various fungicides. Experimental concentrations were calculated from field dose application rates of formulated product per hectare. Larvae were transferred to fresh diet daily and incubated in the dark at 36degreesC and 95% RH. After defecation, prepupae were moved into a dark incubator at 35degrees and 75% RH. Mortalities of larvae, prepupae, and pupae were recorded daily. No larvae fed Captan, Rovral, or Ziram completed development to adults. In the case of Rovral, a novel amorphogenic effect was observed. There were no significant differences in total mortality between the controls and larvae fed Abound, Elevate, Flint, Rally, and Vangard.

 

Evaluation of toxic potential of captan: Induction of hsp70 and tissue damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg(9)

Author: Nazir, A.; Mukhopadhyay, I.; Saxena, D. K.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chowdhuri, D. K.

Year: 2003

Journal: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

Volume: 17

Pages: 98-107

Abstract: The study investigated the working hypothesis that a widely used fungicide captan exerts toxic effects on nontarget organisms. Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) was used as a model by assaying stress gene expression as an endpoint for cytotoxicity and also to evaluate whether stress gene expression is sufficient enough to protect and to prevent tissue damage against toxic insult of the chemical. The study was further extended to understand the effect of the pesticide on development, life cycle, and reproduction of the organism and finally to evaluate a concentration of the chemical to be nontoxic to the organism. The study showed that (i) captan causes cytotoxicity at and above 0.015 ppm; (ii) at 0.0015 ppm captan, absence of hsp70 expression in the exposed organism was evaluated as the concentration referred to as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for Drosophila; (iii) emergence pattern of flies was affected only at the highest concentration of captan by 4 days, while hatching and survivorship were unaffected even at this concentration; (iv) reproductive performance was significantly affected only at 125.0 and 1250.0 ppm captan, while in the lower dietary concentrations no such deleterious effects were observed; (v) at 1250.0 ppm, hsp70 failed to protect the cells from toxicant assault after 48 h exposure, thus leading to tissue damage as revealed by Trypan Blue staining. The present study shows the cytotoxic potential of captan and further reveals the application of stress genes in determining NOAEL and its expression as bioindicator of exposure to environmental contaminants. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

 

Mortality of the leafroller parasitoid Dolichogenidae tasmanica (Hym: Braconidae) exposed to orchard pesticide residues.

Author: Newman, I.C.; Walker, J.T.S.; Rogers, D.J.

Year: 2004

Journal: New Zealand Plant Protection

Volume: 57

Pages: 8-12

Abstract: A laboratory bioassay was used to evaluate the effect of residues from 10 orchard pesticides on mortality of Dolichogenidea tasmanica, a parasitoid of leafrollers.  Adult parasitoids were caged in Petri dishes that had been sprayed with the field rate of the pesticides.  Mortality was assessed over 7 days and classified using the laboratory criteria defined by the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants.  Residues of buprofezin, emamectin, benzoate, lufenuron, tebufenozide and thiacloprid were harmless (<30% mortality) to D. tasmanica adults in the 7 days after treatment.  Indoxacarb and lime sulphur residues were moderately harmful (80-99% mortality), while carbaryl, diazinon and spinosad residues were harmful (>99% mortality).  The implications for leafroller control in pipfruit production programmes are discussed.

 

Survival of adult Tiphia vernalis (Hymenoptera : Tiphiidae) after insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide exposure in laboratory bioassays

Author: Oliver, J. B.; Reding, M. E.; Moyseenko, J. J.; Klein, M. G.; Mannion, C. M.; Bishop, B.

Year: 2006

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 99

Pages: 288-294

Abstract: Tiphia vernalis Rohwer is a hymenopteran ectoparasitoid of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, larvae. The adult wasps feed on nectar or honeydew between mid-April and late June. Adults may contact pesticides when landing on foliage or when females hunt for grubs in the soil. The lethal effect of nursery, turf, and landscape pesticides was determined by exposing wasps to treated foliage in the laboratory. Pesticides tested at labeled rates were the insecticides bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, halofenozide, and imidacloprid; the herbicides oryzalin, pendimethalin, and a combination product with 2,4-D, dicamba, and mecoprop (multiherbicide); and the fungicides chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl. During 2001 and 2002, male and female T. vernalis were exposed to pesticides by using turf cores. For both years, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid treatments lowered adult survival relative to the control, but halofenozide had minimal effect on mortality of males and females. More males than females died after exposure to carbaryl treatments. Survival of females was not reduced by exposure to herbicides or fungicides. Females were apparently more tolerant of pesticides than males. Mortality of males in response to herbicides and fungicides was more variable than for females; in 2002 trials, male mortality was higher after exposure to multiherbicide, oryzalin, pendimethalin, and thiophanate-methyl than the control. The fungicide chlorothalonil did not increase mortality of males or females in either year. Sublethal effects were not evaluated. The study indicates the choice of pesticide may be important for conserving T. vernalis in nursery, landscape, and turf settings.

 

Influence of some pesticides on mortality and fecundity of the aphidophagous coccinellid Adalia bipunctata L. (Col., Coccinellidae)

Author: Olszak, R. W.

Year: 1999

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie

Volume: 123

Pages: 41-45

Abstract: The influence of 30 pesticides (insecticides, acaricides and fungicides) on different stages of Adalia bipunctata was evaluated under laboratory conditions by: (1)immersing individuals for 5 s in the pesticide solution; (2) placing the second and fourth instar larvae on leaves picked From trees treated with the pesticide; and (3) feeding adult coccinellids with aphids contaminated by a recommended concentration of the pesticide. Fenpropathrin, alphacypermethrin, esfenvalerate. acrinathrin, phosalone and propoxur + methoxychlor caused high mortality (up to 100%) not only by direct contact but also as fresh residues on leaves, or even 28 days after application. The mortality also varied with stage and mode of treatment. Feeding with aphids contaminated by fenpropathrin. clofentezine, hexythiazox, brompropylate and vinclozolin decreased the coccinellid fecundity.

 

Effects of pesticides on Diglyphus isaea (Walker) and Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, parasitoids of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Author: Ozawa, A.; Saito, T.; Ikeda, F.

Year: 1998

Journal: Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology

Volume: 42

Pages: 149-161

Abstract: The effects of 28 insecticides, 8 acaricides and 18 fungicides on Diglyphus isaea (Walker) and Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, parasitoids of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), were evaluated by laboratory experiments to determine their toxicity to the adults and larvae of these parasitoids, and their action on parasitism. All tested organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroid, nereistoxin analog and carbamate insecticides were harmful to the adults and mature larvae of D. isaea and the adults of D. sibirica, and also prevented their parasitism of larvae of L. trifolii. The period of residual contact toxicity of granules of acephate and fosthiazate applied in soil to adults of D. isaea and D. sibirica was more than 6 weeks. Tested chloronicotinyl insecticides were moderately harmful to the adults of the parasitoids, and imidacloprid prevented parasitism by D. isaea. Granules of imidacloprid applied in soil did not show contact toxicity, and prevention of parasitism by D. isaea was slight. Bromopropylate, dicofol and fenbutatin oxide acaricides were slightly harmful to the adult parasitoids, but fenbutatin oxide was safe to larvae and parasitism by D. isaea. Hexythiazox, Bacillus thuringiensis and sodium oleate were safe for adults and larvae of D. isaea, and parasitism by the two species of parasitoids. Growth regulator insecticides, buprofezin, flufenoxuron, pyriproxyfen and teffubenzuron, were safe for the adults, parasitism by the two species of parasitoids and development of progeny oviposited by adult D. isaea dipped in them. Except pyriproxyfen, these IGR insecticides were safe for larvae of D. isaea. Pymetrozine was safe for adults of the two parasitoids, the larvae of D. isaea and parasitism by D. sibirica, while it was slightly harmful to parasitism by D. isaea. Most tested fungicides were safe. Captan was moderately harmful to adults of the two parasitoids, but was safe for larvae and parasitism by the parasitoids. Thus, it is suggested that IGRs (buprofezin, flufenoxuron, pyriproxyfen and teflubenzuron), Bacillus thuringiensis, sodium oleate, pymetrozine, some acaricides and most fungicides can be combined with D. isaea and D. sibirica in L. trifolii IPM programs.

 

Earthworms as useful bioindicators of agroecosystem sustainability in orchards and vineyards with different inputs

Author: Paoletti, M. G.; Sommaggio, D.; Favretto, M. R.; Petruzzelli, G.; Pezzarossa, B.; Barbafieri, M.

Year: 1998

Journal: Applied Soil Ecology

Volume: 10

Pages: 137-150

Abstract: Earthworm communities were studied in 72 different agroecosystems including vineyards and three types of orchards: apple, peach and kiwi. Orchards had different agricultural inputs, in particular copper (namely, copper sulphate applied as fungicide), and soil cultivation. Heavy metals were analyzed together with other soil parameters (nutrients, bacteria and fungi). No differences were detected regarding microorganisms in orchards subjected to different agricultural practices. Copper concentration was higher in vineyards. Total earthworm abundance and biomass were severely reduced both by copper input and soil tillage. Individual species gave different responses to agricultural practices. Aporrectodea caliginosa was negatively affected by both copper concentration and soil cultivation, while Allolobophora chlorotica was negatively affected only by copper input. Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus castaneus were nearly absent in tilled orchards but apparently they were not much affected by copper input. Octodrilus lissaensis and Octodrilus pseudocomplanatus did not seem to be reduced by copper input and soil tillage. Species number and biomass were reduced both by tillage and copper input. Negative effects of tillage and fungicide residues (Cu, Zn) are clear enough factors to promote more extensive use of earthworms as reliable bioindicators in the rural landscape. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

 

Side effects of five acaricides on the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Author: Pascual, S.; Pina, T.; Castanera, P.; Urbaneja, A.

Year: 2006

Journal: IOBC Bulletin

Volume: 29

Pages: 187

Abstract: The effects of 5 acaricides (fenazaquin, clofentezin, tebufenpirad, fenbutestan and mineral oil) on biological parameters (survival, fecundity, fertility and developmental time) of different stages of the mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae), were evaluated under laboratory conditions by: (1) direct contact – topical application on larvae, pupae and adults; and (2) ingestion – feeding adult and larva with the citrus mealybug [Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hom.: Pseudococcidae)] previously treated by the correspondent acaricide. The five acaricides resulted harmless for adults and pupae of C. montrouzieri. All acaricides tested were slightly harmful to larvae of C. montrouzieri, except fenbutestan, which did not show any effect.

 

Foraging mode: a factor affecting the susceptibility of spiders (Araneae) to insecticide applications

Author: Pekar, S.

Year: 1999

Journal: Pesticide Science

Volume: 55

Pages: 1077-1082

Abstract: Field experiments have revealed that some species of spiders are more sensitive to insecticides than others. Among many factors influencing their susceptibility, foraging mode seems to play an important role. Aspects of foraging mode that appear to be relevant are whether the spider is diurnal or nocturnal, a hunter or a web-maker. Six spider species, Araniella opisthographa, Clubiona neglecta, Dictyna uncinata, Pardosa agrestis, Philodromus cespitum and Theridion impressum were used in the study. P agrestis and P cespitum are diurnal hunters that may come into direct contact with insecticide. C neglecta is nocturnal and so is exposed to residues only. The remaining three species are web-makers building webs that vary in the extent to which they can protect the spider from direct spray. The effect of sprays was tested under laboratory conditions (Potter tower) with three commercial insecticides, an insect growth regulator (hexaflumuron), a selective organophosphorus (phosalone) and a non-selective pyrethroid insecticide (permethrin) using a four-day exposure period. Data were analysed using bootstrap method and randomization tests. The results obtained showed that hunting spiders were more susceptible to the insecticides tested than web-makers (in their webs). Diurnal hunting spiders (Philodromus and Pardosa) were severely affected only by permethrin. A high mortality was observed for the nocturnal hunter, Clubiona, after application of phosalone and permethrin. This species appears to be very sensitive to residues of both insecticides. Comparing the effect on web-making spiders, with and without webs, it was observed that the sparse orb-web of Araniella did not protect its owner at all, but the dense cribellate and frame-webs of Dictyna and Theridion, respectively, reduced the mortality caused by permethrin significantly in comparison with specimens without webs. Of other factors studied, posture (normal and upside-down position) did not influence the susceptibility. Mortality increased slightly with body size after permethrin application. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry.

 

Susceptibility of the spider Theridion impressum to 17 pesticides

Author: Pekar, S.

Year: 2002

Journal: Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science

Volume: 75

Pages: 51-55

Abstract: Susceptibility of immature individuals of the spider Theridion impressum to 17 pesticides (6 insecticides, 4 acaricides, 4 fungicides and 3 herbicides) was tested in the laboratory. The pesticides were applied at recommended rates in a Potter tower. Mortality was evaluated for 4 subsequent days: Broad-spectrum insecticides, cypermethrin+chlorpyrofos (Nurelle), alpha-cypermethrin (Vaztak), and deltamethrin (Decis), were toxic to spiders. Selective insecticides, pirimicarb (Pirimor), Bacillus thuringiensis (Novodor), and triazamate (Aztec), were harmless. All tested acaricides, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic), flufenoxuron (Cascade), tau-fluvalinate+thiometon (Mavrik), and bifenthrin (Talstar) showed high toxicity. Of the fungicides, dithianon (Delan), benomyl (Fundazol), iprodione (Rovral), and dodine (Syllit), only dithianon was slightly harmful, while the remaining fungicides were harmful. All herbicides, metazachlor (Butisan), clomazone (Command), and clopyralid (Lontrel), were harmless to T. impressum. Three selective insecticides, 3 fungicides and 3 herbicides are recommended for use in plant protection.

 

Effect of three insect growth regulators on larval development, fecundity and egg viability of the coccinellid, Chilorus bipustulatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

Author: Peleg, B.A.

Year: 1983

Journal: Entomophaga

Volume: 28

Pages: 117-121

Abstract: The effect of 3 insect growth regulators — methoprene, diflubenzuron and RO 13-5223, on the coccinelid Chilocorus bipustulatus L. was studied in the laboratory. Feeding on Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) or Aspidiotus hederae Vallot (Diaspididae) treated with the IGRs at the concentration of 0.025% a.i. revealed the following: diflubenzuron caused a complete mortality of 1 st instar larvae; methoprene and RO 13-5223 did not arrest larval development but inhibited pupation; fecundity of sexually mature females was not affected by the 3 IGRs but egg hatch was completely inhibited; egg viability was regained when IGR-exposed females had been transferred to an uncontaminated environment.

 

Environmental impact of the locust control agents fenitrothion, fenitrothion-esfenvalerate and triflumuron on terrestrial arthropods in Madagascar

Author: Peveling, R.; Rafanomezantsoa, J. J.; Razafinirina, R.; Tovonkery, R.; Zafimaniry, G.

Year: 1999

Journal: Crop Protection

Volume: 18

Pages: 659-676

Abstract: The held toxicity of three chemical locust control agents to terrestrial non-target arthropods was investigated in small- and large-scale held trails in the recession area of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria capito (Sauss.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), in Southwestern Madagascar. The insecticides were applied as full cover sprays on 16 ha (1994) and 400 ha (1995) plots, respectively. The relative abundance of more than 40 arthropod taxa (combined 1994 and 1995 trials) was monitored during 4 weeks before and at least 12 weeks after treatment. The organophosphate fenitrothion (F, 1994) caused significant medium to long-term population declines of > 75% in several epigeal non-target insect taxa (springtails, ants, Zophosis madagascariensis Deyrolle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)) and was classified as a high risk product. Non-target grasshoppers were reduced by about 50-60%. Springtail relative abundance returned to pre-spray levels in the following season. Significant effects of the organophosphate-pyrethroid combination fenitrothion-esfenvalerate (FE, 1995) were usually < 75% (medium risk). However, springtails responded as sensitive to this product as to fenitrothion, and there were no indications of recovery over the 12 week post-treatment observation period. The insect growth regulator (IGR) triflumuron (TFM, 1994 and 1995) posed a low risk to ground-dwelling insects except for orthopterans (crickets and grasshoppers) and caterpillars which were significantly reduced for several weeks (moderate risk). Vegetation dwelling and flying insects were moderately affected by FE, Non-target butterfly densities increased towards the end of the trial which appeared to be related to a significant reduction in hymenopteran predators and parasitoids. TFM had a marked effect on butterflies (> 60%), but was harmless to the other insects. Spiders responded less sensitively to pesticide stress than insects, but orb web spiders were significantly reduced by fenitrothion-esfenvalerate. The breakdown of organic matter was not affected by any of the insecticides. The results suggest the following relative field toxicity ranking: TFM < FE < F. However, such a ranking system does not imply that the least hazardous product is the safest in all environmental settings. This study rather supports an integrated approach, where control strategies are adapted to the particular conservation priorities in the treated areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Side effects of some fungicides on phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae) in north-Italian vineyards

Author: Pozzebon, A.; Duso, C.; Pavanetto, E.

Year: 2002

Journal: Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science

Volume: 75

Pages: 132-136

Abstract: The effects of fungicides containing mancozeb or copper oxychloride, as principal active ingredients, on phytoseiid mites were investigated in a vineyard comprising four varieties (Prosecco, Cabernet Franc, Pinot gris and Merlot) and located in north-eastern Italy. Phytoseiid colonisation was different among the four varieties: Amblyseius andersoni and Kampimodromus aberrans were dominant on Pinot gris and Merlot, respectively, while Typhlodromus pyri was more common than the above species on Prosecco and Cabernet Franc. Applications of mancozeb fungicides significantly affected K. aberrans populations. Concerning T. pyri , a significant effect was observed on Cabernet but not on Prosecco. The effects of mancozeb fungicides on A. andersoni were less clear. The response of phytoseiids to fungicides containing mancozeb appeared to be mediated by the variety. Therefore, the choice of one or two varieties as a standard reference for field tests is recommended. These results also suggest that the side effects of fungicides on predatory mites should be studied on different phytoseiid species and, possibly, on susceptible and resistant strains in order to gain useful insights.

 

Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests

Author: Prabhaker, N.; Morse, J. G.; Castle, S. J.; Naranjo, S. E.; Henneberry, T. J.; Toscano, N. C.

Year: 2007

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 100

Pages: 1053-1061

Abstract: Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E.formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashamedi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests.

 

Toxicity of chemicals commonly used in Indonesian vegetable crops to Lyriomyza huidobrensis populations and the Indonesian parasitoids Hemiptarsenus varicornis, Opius sp., and Gronotoma micromorpha, as well the Australian parasitoids Hemiptarsenus varicornis and Diglyphus isaea.

Author: Prijono, D.; Robinson, M.; Rauf, A.; Bjorksten, T.; Hoffmann, A.A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 97

Pages: 1191-1197

Abstract:

Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) are important pests of vegetable crops in Indonesia and are likely to spread to neighboring countries. Three pesticides (dimehypo, abamectin, and cyromazine) are currently used to control these pests, but there is little information on their effectiveness against field populations and on their impact on parasitoids controlling Liriomyza species. The toxicity of these chemicals to L. huidobrensis and three common parasitoids (Hemiptarsenus varicornis Gerault, Opius sp., and Gronotoma micromorpha Perkins) was therefore evaluated in Indonesia with mortality laboratory assays. All three chemicals were effective against larvae of three populations of L. huidobrensis with different histories of chemical exposure. Dimehypo caused mortality in adult Opius sp., G. micromorpha, and H. varicornis, whereas abamectin was toxic only at concentrations substantially higher than the field rate. Cyromazine did not influence survival of the parasitoids. A commonly used fungicide, mancozeb, had no impact on parasitoid mortality. Trials were repeated with a strain of H. varicornis from Australia and a different parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea) recently found in Australia. Neither parasitoid was influenced by mancozeb or cyromazine. Abamectin applied at field rates caused some mortality among the adults of both species, but was less toxic than chlorpyrifos. Abamectin produced lower LC50s against Australian H. varicornis than against Indonesian H. varicornis. These results suggest that cyromazine can be incorporated into Liriomyza control programs in Indonesia that conserve parasitoids, whereas dimehypo and abamectin need to be used cautiously. Local Australian parasitoids should help control L. huidobrensis as long as only cyromazine and nontoxic fungicides are applied.

 

 

Effects of chlorpyrifos and sulfur on spider mites (Acari : Tetranychidae) and their natural enemies

Author: Prischmann, D. A.; James, D. G.; Wright, L. C.; Teneyck, R. D.; Snyder, W. E.

Year: 2005

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 33

Pages: 324-334

Abstract: In many agricultural systems spider mites are believed to be induced pests, only reaching damaging densities after pesticides decimate predator populations. Wine grapes typically receive two types of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. Chemicals in either class could impact spider mite densities both directly through spider mite mortality, and indirectly by negatively affecting natural enemies. The impact of a broad-spectrum insecticide (chlorpyrifos) and an inorganic fungicide (sulfur) on mites and their natural enemies was monitored in replicate open-field experiments conducted in an abandoned vineyard in Washington State. In both experiments, chemicals were applied within a 2 x 2 factorial design, allowing assessment of both main and interactive effects of the two chemicals. Following typical management practices on wine grapes in Washington State, we made a single insecticide application early in the season, but repeatedly applied sulfur throughout the season. In the absence of sulfur, chlorpyrifos application led to higher spider mite densities. The main effect of chlorpyrifos appeared to be indirect, perhaps mediated through mortality of generalist phytoseiid mites; generalists appeared to be unable to recover following even a single insecticide application, while there was no evidence for harmful effects of chlorpyrifos on specialist phytoseiid mites. Sulfur had direct suppressive effects on both pest and predatory mites, although in the second experiment the suppressive effect of sulfur on spider mites was weaker when chlorpyrifos was also applied. These field experiments suggest that a complex mix of direct and indirect effects of the two chemicals impacted spider mite population dynamics in our system. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

Toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects in apple-tree site under field conditions

Author: Raudonis, L.; Surviliene, E.; Valiuskaite, A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Environmental Toxicology

Volume: 19

Pages: 291-295

Abstract: Various applications of active ingredients of six fungicides and three insecticides and acaricides at normally recommended dosages were tested on two predatory mite species (Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Anthoseius bakeri Garman) from the family Phytoseiidae and on two predatory insect species (Coccinella septempunctata L. Chrysopa perla L.) dominantly present on apple trees. Small differences were found between fungicide treatments. On the trees treated with six fungicide applications the predatory mites and insects survived and increased to a high level, often 20-40 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 4-8 predatory insects per sample unit. Only the active ingredients tolylfluanid and myclobutanil resulted in lower densities of predatory mites (10-20 phytoseiids per 100 leaves). One application of insecticides-acaricides (active ingredients: clofentezine, phosalone) showed no toxic effect on predatory mites and insects. Two applications of phosalone and one of alpha-cypermethrine were slightly or moderately toxic. Two applications of alpha-cypermethrine and eight routine sprays of various insecticides-acaricides and fungicides were very toxic and resulted in the lowest maximum number of predatory mites and insects, approximately 0-10 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 1-4 predatory insects per sample unit. The toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects is based on the toxicity of the pesticide’ active ingredient and the spray frequency. The active ingredients of fungicides and only one or two applications of insecticides and acaricides were not or slightly toxic and could be used in integrated pest management. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

 

Effects of insect growth regulators on citrus mealybug parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae)

Author: Rothwangl, K. B.; Cloyd, R. A.; Wiedenmann, R. N.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 97

Pages: 1239-1244

Abstract: In this study, we measured the effects of three commonly used insecticides classified as insect growth regulators, on the encyrtid parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard)when parasitizing citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). Kinoprene, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin were evaluated in both petri dish and a cage experiment at label-recommended rates to measure their effects on the mortality, parasitization rate, and sex ratio of L. dactylopii. insecticides were applied to petri dishes and plants either immediately before, 24 h before, or 48 h before release of the parasitoid. Kinoprene applied 24 h before parasitoid release caused 100% mortality of L. dactylopii in petri dishes within 48 h. Mortality rates for L. dactylopii exposed to azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen did not exceed 5% regardless of release time. There were no release time x insecticide interactions on L. dactylopii parasitization rate. The insecticide alone, however, did significantly affect parasitization rates of L. dactylopii on P. citri; the kinoprene treatment significantly reduced L. dactylopii parasitization rates compared with azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen. In a cage experiment with coleus, Solenostemon scutellaroides (L.) Codd, applications of both pyriproxyfen and kinoprene resulted in fewer P. citri parasitized by L. dactylopii than azadirachtin or the control. The sex ratio was equivalent in the petri dish experiment, whereas in the cage experiment the sex ratio was biased toward males, particularly for the kinoprene treatment. Based on the results from this study, we suggest that kinoprene is not compatible with releases of L. dactylopii to control citrus mealybugs.

 

Acute toxicity of insecticides to Micromus tasmaniae (Neuroptera : Hemerobiidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae): LC50 and LC90 estimates for various test durations

Author: Rumpf, S.; Frampton, C.; Chapman, B.

Year: 1997

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 90

Pages: 1493-1499

Abstract: The acute toxicities of 6 insecticides deriving from 3 different insecticide classes were assessed in laboratory tests with Micromus tasmaniae (Walker) after different post treatment periods (1.5-360 h). The aim was to determine optimal test durations for the calculation of stable (i.e., no further change over time) LC50 and LC90 estimates. In addition, the responses of M. tasmaniae to the above insecticides were compared with those for Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). In short-term evaluations (less than or equal to 24 h), methyl-parathion caused the highest mortality in M. tasmaniae. The toxicity of methyl-parathion did not change significantly over time; however, the toxicity of azinphos-methyl, cypermethrin, fenoxycarb, and diflubenzuron did. Minimum posttreatment periods of 48, 72, 120, and 360 h were necessary before stable lethal concentrations estimates could be determined for azinphos-methyl, cypermethrin, fenoxycarb, and diflubenzuron, respectively. AL the point of stable LC(50)s and LC(90)s, the latter compounds were more toxic to M. tasmaniae than methyl-parathion. Tebufenozide did not cause any mortality in either lacewing species. Comparisons between the 2 lacewings species showed that M. tasmaniae was more sensitive to methyl-parathion, azinphos-methyl, and cypermethrin than C. carnea, whereas the toxicity of fenoxycarb and diflubenzuron was similar to both species. The results demonstrate the importance of carrying out acute toxicity studies to an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides. In addition, the comparisons with C. carnea demonstrated that the results of toxicity studies cannot be extrapolated to closely related families.

 

Effects of conventional insecticides and insect growth regulators on fecundity and other life-table parameters of Micromus tasmaniae (Neuroptera : Hemerobiidae)

Author: Rumpf, S.; Frampton, C.; Dietrich, D. R.

Year: 1998

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 91

Pages: 34-40

Abstract: Effects of 3 conventional insecticides (methyl parathion, azinphos-methyl, cypermethrin) and 3 insect growth regulators (fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron, and tebufenozide) on life-table parameters of Micromus tasmaniae Walker were determined in adults derived from insecticide-treated larvae. The following parameters were compared with the control: sex ratio, longevity, sterility, and fecundity. Power analysis was used to increase the efficiency and the predictability of the life-table test. Diflubenzuron resulted in a higher proportion female lacewings. Longevity was reduced for females emerging from fenoxycarb- and diflubenzuron-treated larvae. Total number of eggs was reduced for diflubenzuron- and fenoxycarb-treated lacewings, as well as the following generation of tebufenozide-exposed lacewings. Daily number of eggs was reduced for the diflubenzuron treatment. Peak egg production was increased for lacewings exposed to azinphos-methyl and was decreased for the following generation of tebufenozide-exposed lacewings. Diflubenzuron treatment resulted in an extended preoviposition period. Oviposition periods were reduced for lacewings treated with fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron or azinphos-methyl as well as for the following generation of the tebufenozide treatment. The time to peak egg production was similar for all treatments. Methyl parathion, cypermethrin, and tebufenozide treatments showed no differences in any of the tested life-table parameters in the Ist generation. In summary, the insect growth regulators fenoxycarb and diflubenzuron had a more severe impact on life-table parameters than the 2 organophosphates and the pyrethroid. In future research, increased attention should be paid to long-term (e.g., the following generation) effects on life-table parameters.

 

Toxicity and pharmacokinetics of insect growth regulators and other novel insecticides on pupae of Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of early larval instars of lepidopteran pests

Author: Schneider, M. I.; Smagghe, G.; Gobbi, A.; Vinuela, E.

Year: 2003

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 96

Pages: 1054-1065

Abstract: Susceptibility of the lepidopteran parasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) to seven modern insecticides, azadirachtin, diflubenzuron, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, tebufenozide, and spinosad, was’ tested in the laboratory. Pupae were exposed to different doses of each compound by direct topical application. At the field recommended doses, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide had no effect on H. didymator. Halofenozide had a low effect on both adult emergence and adult survival but the progeny size and parasitism capacity were not affected. Difluberizuron was moderately toxic to the parasitoid, while azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen and spinosad were very toxic, affecting all its life parameters. In the pyriproxyfen and spinosad treatments, no progeny was obtained. As a second approach of this study, we determined the rate of penetration through the pupal cocoon and absorption in the parasitoid body as pharmacokinetic parameters important for toxicity. Most of the radioactivity was retained in the silken cocoon, indicating a low accumulation in the parasitoid body. Among all compounds tested, diflubenzuron exhibited the highest absorption in the parasitoid body, followed by pyriproxyfen. For halofenozide, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, low absorption (<2%) was found. In addition, we tested for the presence of molting hormone receptors in Hyposoter tissues using a monoclonal antibody 9B9. Our data suggest that the use of diflubenzuron azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen, halofenozide, and spinosad in combination with H. didymator in integrated pest management (IPM) programs should be carefully evaluated. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide could be considered safe for this parasitoid.

 

Action of insect growth regulator insecticides and spinosad on life history parameters and absorption in third instar larvae of the endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator.

Author: Schneider, M.I.; Smagghe, G.; Pineda, S.; Vinuela, E.

Year: 2004

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 31

Pages: 189-198

Abstract:

Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is an important larval parasitoid of several lepidopteran pests. Under laboratory conditions, the topical toxicity of selected insect growth regulator insecticides, azadirachtin (AZA), dixubenzuron (DFB), methoxyfenozide (MET), pyriproxyfen (PYR), and tebufenozide (TEB), and the naturalyte spinosad (SPIN) was tested against last (third)-instar larvae of this parasitoid up to the maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC). At MFRC, no abnormalities or mortality were scored for MET and TEB (IOBC toxicity classes 1). In contrast, AZA was slightly, PYR moderately, and DFB and SPIN harmful to the parasitoid (IOBC toxicity classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively). These ratings are the result of a reduction in rate of: (i) pupae formation, (ii) pupal mortality, (iii) adult longevity, (iv) parasitism, and (v) adult emergence. In addition, PYR and SPIN caused a direct mortality in the treated larvae. At sublethal concentrations, every insecticide but MET and TEB also aVected these life history parameters of the parasitoid. The second part of the study focused on pharmacokinetic parameters important for the toxicological properties of these insecticides. We determined the recovery pattern of 14C-labeled DFB, MET, PYR, and TEB from parasitoid body, larval exuvia, and silken pupal cocoon after topical application to third-instar larvae. For MET, TEF,and PYR, 160% was recovered from the parasitoid body after 24 h, whereas this was only 12% for DFB, which was mostly detected in the silken cocoon (160%). More than 25% PYR was also detected in the larval exuvia after three days. Data suggest that thesilken pupal cocoon and the larval exuvia might play a role in eliminating insecticides. In conclusion, the current results indicated that MET and TEB are harmless to third larvae of H. didymator. In contrast, AZA, DFB, PYR, and SPIN are harmful and their usein IPM should be considered with caution until they are evaluated under field conditions.

 

Observations of population increases and injury by spider mites (Acari : Tetranychidae) on ornamental plants treated with imidacloprid

Author: Sclar, D. C.; Gerace, D.; Cranshaw, W. S.

Year: 1998

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 91

Pages: 250-255

Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted to investigate previous observations that soil applications of imidacloprid resulted in increased spider mite populations and spider mite injury on ornamental plants. Marigolds, Tagetes erecta L., treated with either a soil drench or soil granular formulation of imidacloprid were observed to sustain significantly greater damage from twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, than untreated plants. Populations of the honeylocust spider mite, Platytetranychus multidigituli (Ewing), were as much as 3-4 times higher on honeylocust, Gleditsia triacanthos L., which had received an imidacloprid soil drench, compared with control plants. Effects on spider mite populations or injury were not observed in greenhouse trials involving marigolds, suggesting that this effect was not caused by either hormoligosis or phytotoxicity. However, mortality of Orius tristicolor (White), a hemipteran predator of spider mites, was observed to increase significantly when confined with leaves collected from plants that had received soil treatments of imidacloprid. The adverse effects to predators may be an important reason for the increase in spider mite injury and abundance resulting from soil treatments of imidacloprid in Colorado.

 

Toxicity of pesticides used in coffee crops to larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae) and their effects on subsequent stages of the predator

Author: Silva, R. A.; Carvalho, G. A.; Carvalho, C. F.; Reis, P. R.; Pereira, Amar; Cosme, L. V.

Year: 2005

Journal: Neotropical Entomology

Volume: 34

Pages: 951-959

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pesticides used in coffee crops to larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) and their effects on the subsequent developmental stages of the predator. The treatments in g a.i./L of water were: 1 – endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE – 1.75), 2 – chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE – 1.2), 3 – betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE – 0.013), 4 – sulphur (Kumulus 800 PM 4.0), 5 – azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM – 0.31), 6 – copper oxichloride (Cuprogarb 500 PM – 5.0) and 7 – control (water). The products were sprayed on first, second and third-instar larvae using a Potter’s tower. The larvae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, RH of 70 +/- 10% and 12h photophase. The toxicity of the pesticides was calculated based in their total effect (E) and classified according to recommendations of IOBC. Chlorpyrifos and betacyfluthrin were harmful to first-instar larvae (E > 99%). Endosulfan, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxichloride were harmless to first-instar larvae and the others were selective. Chlorpyrifos was also toxic to second and third-instar larvae, and the other compounds were selective (E < 30%). None of the pesticides affected the duration and survival rate of pupae or the sex ratio of the adults originated from treated larvae. Endosulfan, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxichloride were harmless to the larval stage of C. externa and did not affect the subsequent stages, so that they can be recommended in IPM programs for the coffee crop.

 

Side-effects of insecticides on natural enemies of citrus scale pests in Italy

Author: Siscaro, G.; Longo, S.; Mazzeo, G.; Suma, P.; Zappala, L.; Samperi, G.

Year: 2006

Journal: IOBC Bulletin

Volume: 29

Pages: 55

Abstract: Laboratory trials were conducted to test the side-effects of 5 insecticides, Etifos® M (chlorpyrifos-methyl), Applaud® (buprofezin), Admiral® (pyriproxyfen), Laser® (spinosad) and Biolid® E. (narrow range mineral oil) on 4 parasitoids of Citrus scales: Aphytis melinus DeBach, Coccophagus semicircularis (Förster), Coccophagus lycimnia Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The tests were conducted using a spray Potter Tower following the standard principles accepted by the IOBC/wprs Working group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms”. Contact toxicity on adults after 24, 48 and 72h, the effects on their fertility as well as the sex-ratio and the fecundity of the progeny were observed. A test was carried out also spraying Citrus mealybug mummies parasitized by L. dactylopii. Total mortality (100%) of all tested parasitoids due to contact toxicity was observed 24h after the treatment with chlorpyrifos-methyl and spinosad. The mean levels of mortality obtained after 72h on C. semicircularis and L. dactylopii were 76% and 58% respectively after treatments with mineral oil. Buprofezin after 72h caused 95% mortality on C. semicircularis, 100% on C. lycimnia, 42% on L. dactylopii and 76% on A. melinus. The other IGR (pyriproxyfen) caused lower mortality rates (88% on C. lycimnia, 48% on L. dactylopii and 62% on A. melinus). The average number of progeny per single L. dactylopii surviving female was 13.45±4.10 (buprofezin), 13.67±9.61 (mineral oil), 10.83±5.67 (pyriproxyfen) and 15.09±10.35 (untreated control) with no statistically significant differences. The sex ratio of the progeny (M:F) was 0.8:1 (buprofezin), 2.6:1 (mineral oil), 1:1 (pyriproxyfen) and 0.8:1 (untreated control). The surviving A. melinus females produced a mean number of progeny of 3.75±0.35 (buprofezin), 36.04±4.20 (pyriproxyfen) and 36.44±2.42 (untreated control) with the first value significantly different from the others. The sex ratio of the progeny (M:F) was 0.8:1 (buprofezin), 0.6:1 (pyriproxyfen) and 0.6:1 (untreated control). The surviving C. lycimnia females (pyriproxyfen) didn’t produce any progeny while 39.98±7.59 mean progeny were produced by the untreated control. Semi-field and field trials are needed to better define the compatibility of the tested pesticides with IPM strategies in Citrus groves in Italy.

 

Buprofezin: an effective and selective insect growth regulator against  Unaspis citri (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on citrus in south-east Queensland.

Author: Smith, D.; Papacek, D.

Year: 1990

Journal: General Applied Entomology

Volume: 22

Pages: 25-28

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Effect of field-weathered residues of pyriproxyfen on the predatory coccinellids Chilocorus circumdatus Gyllenhal and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

Author: Smith, K. M.; Smith, D.; Lisle, A. T.

Year: 1999

Journal: Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture

Volume: 39

Pages: 995-1000

Abstract: The residual toxicity of field-weathered residues of the juvenile hormone analogue insecticide, pyriproxyfen was evaluated against two coccinellids, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Chilocorus circumdatus Gyllenhal, key predators of mealybugs and scales in citrus in southeast Queensland. Pyriproxyfen was applied as a high volume spray at 0.1, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L to late Valencia orange trees, and larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri and C. circumdatus were exposed to leaves picked at intervals varying from 0 to 112 days after spraying. The effect on fourth and fifth instar larvae and pupation and subsequent adult emergence, and on the viability of eggs from treated adults, was measured. Regression models were developed to relate larval mortality and egg hatch to pyriproxyfen concentration and weathering time. Pyriproxyfen killed larvae or prevented pupation of 50% of C. montrouzieri for 64 days at 10 mg/L and for a predicted 167 days at 100 mg/L; the effect on C. circumdatus was even greater, lasting a predicted 210 days at 10 mg/L, Egg-hatch (from adults exposed to treated leaves) was suppressed at 10 mg/L for 28 days in C. montrouzieri and for 50 days in C. circumdatus; at 100 mg/L, suppression extended to 50 days and a predicted 478 days, respectively. The combined effects on larvae and eggs of rates between 10 and 100 mg/L would be extremely disruptive to both species. Disruption was much less at 2 mg/L (lasting up to 3 weeks) and at 5 mg/L (lasting up to 7 weeks). Because of its potency against scale insects, pyriproxyfen may yet have a role in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) providing it is used very sparingly at dosage rates no greater than 2 mg/L.

 

Limitation to use of topical toxicity data for predictions of pesticide side effects in the field.

Author: Stark, J. D.; Jepson, P. C.; Mayer, D. F.

Year: 1995

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 88

Pages: 1081-1088

Abstract: We consider ways in which laboratory-derived toxicity data might be used to predict the safety of insecticides to beneficial invertebrates. ii model test system consisting of a predator, the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin Meneville (larvae and adults); a parasitoid, Aphidius ervi Haliday; and the bee species Apis mellifera L., Megachile rotundata (F.), and Nomia melanderi (Cockerell) was tested with diazinon, imidacloprid, and RH-7988 [ethyl (3-tert-butyl-1-dimethyl carbamoyl-1H-1,24-triazol-5-ylthio) acetate]. We also tested the pea aphid, Acyrthasiphon pisum (Harris), to calculate selectivity ratios for these beneficial species, which coexist with the aphid pest in Washington State pea and alfalfa ecosystems. Topical toxicity was estimated for all species and ranged 0.0002-0.45 micrograms per insect for diazinon, 0.000031-0.04 micrograms per insect for imidacloprid, and 0.0015-6.11 micrograms per insect for RH-7988. Selectivity ratios based on these values spanned 0.02-47.4, 12.9-1,290.3, and 13.3-4,073 for diazinon, imidacloprid, and RH-7988, respectively. Risk assessment indices based on probit substitution (estimate of mortality of beneficial species at LD(90) for the pest) and 2 standard methods for bees, a sequential testing scheme and a hazard index gave variable predictions of the compatibility of these compounds with integrated pest management. We conclude that predictive methods must advance to consider relative exposure rates to pesticides, aspects of chemical fate, and behavior of the organisms concerned if they are to be useful. Above all, predictions must be validated with field data.

 

Results of the seventh joint pesticide testing programme carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’

Author: Sterk, G.; Hassan, S. A.; Baillod, M.; Bakker, F.; Bigler, F.; Blumel, S.; Bogenschutz, H.; Boller, E.; Bromand, B.; Brun, J.; Calis, J. N. M.; Coremans-Pelseneer, J.; Duso, C.; Garrido, A.; Grove, A.; Heimbach, U.; Hokkanen, H.; Jacas, J.; Lewis, G.; Moreth, L.; Polgar, L.; Roversti, L.; Samsoe-Peterson, L.; Sauphanor, B.; Schaub, L.; Staubli, A.; Tuset, J. J.; Vainio, A.; Van de Veire, M.; Viggiani, G.; Vinuela, E.; Vogt, H.

Year: 1999

Journal: Biocontrol

Volume: 44

Pages: 99-117

Abstract: The side effect of 10 insecticides, 5 fungicides and 5 herbicides on 24 different species of beneficial organisms was tested by members of the Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’ of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC), West Palaearctic Regional Section (WPRS). The tests were conducted by 32 members in 12 countries according to internationally approved guidelines. The microbial insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Delfin), B. thuringiensis var. tenebrionis (Novodor) and Verticillium lecanii (Micro Germin), the fungicides cyproconazol (Alto), difenoconazol (Score), lecithin (Bioblatt Mehltau) and penconazol (Omnex), and the herbicides ethofumesat (Tramat), fluroxypyr (Starane), haloxyfop (Gallant), isoproturon (Arelon) and metamitron (Goltix) were harmless to nearly all the beneficial arthropods. The benzoylurea’s teflubenzuron (Nomolt) and flufenoxuron (Cascade) affected predators such as anthocorids, earwigs, coccinellids and lacewings. The remaining preparations were more toxic and should therefore be further tested in semi-field and field experiments on relevant organisms. Most tested fungicides were toxic for the entomopathogenic fungi.

 

Effects of insecticides on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae), measured by field, greenhouse and petri dish bioassays

Author: Studebaker, G. E.; Kring, T. J.

Year: 2003

Journal: Florida Entomologist

Volume: 86

Pages: 178-185

Abstract: Orius insidiosus (Say) is an important predator of several economic pests in cotton. Laboratory-reared males, females and third instar nymphs were exposed to residues of nine insecticides applied to cotton plants in the field, in potted plants in the greenhouse and glass Petri dishes in the laboratory. Insects were exposed for 24-hours and then removed to determine mortality. Insecticides tested were spinosad, indoxacarb, imidacloprid, tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin. Differences were observed in mortality as measured by different methods. Spinosad, imidacloprid and indoxacarb induced significantly higher mortality with treated Petri dishes than on treated cotton plants in the field or greenhouse. No differences in mortality were observed between methods with fipronil or lambda-cyhalothrin, and in only one instance with abamectin. Spinosad was not toxic in the field or greenhouse bioassays, but was highly toxic in the Petri dish bioassay. Imidacloprid was moderately toxic in the field and greenhouse, but was highly toxic in the Petri dish bioassay. Indoxacarb had variable toxicity, with low to moderate toxicity in the field and greenhouse, and high toxicity in the Petri dish bioassay. It is apparent that multiple testing methods should be used in evaluating the effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods.

 

Effect of insecticides on Trichogramma exiguum (Trichogrammatidae : Hymenoptera) preimaginal development and adult survival

Author: Suh, C. P. C.; Orr, D. B.; Van Duyn, J. W.

Year: 2000

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Pages: 577-583

Abstract: The effect of insecticides on Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner emergence, adult survival, and fitness parameters was investigated. Insecticides tested were lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, thiodicarb, profenophos, spinosad, methoxyfenozide, and tebufenozide. All insecticides, with the exception of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, adversely affected Trichogramma emergence from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) host eggs when exposed at different preimaginal stages of development (larval, prepupal, or pupal). Regardless of the developmental stage treated, none of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the sex ratio or frequency of brachyptery of emerged females. However, the mean life span of emerged T. exiguum females significantly varied among insecticide treatments, and was significantly affected by the developmental stage of parasitoid when treated. Based on LC50 values, spinosad and prophenofos were the most toxic compounds to female T. exiguum adults, followed by lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and thiodicarb. Insecticides field-weathered for four to 6 d on cotton leaves showed no activity against female T. exiguum adults.

 

Tests for evaluating the side effects of chlorothalonil (TPN) and spinosad on the parasitic wasp (Aphidius colemant)

Author: Takahashi, Y.; Kojimoto, T.; Nagaoka, H.; Takagi, Y.; Oikawa, M.

Year: 2005

Journal: Journal of Pesticide Science

Volume: 30

Pages: 11-16

Abstract: To better understand the side-effects of pesticides on nontarget insects, exposure and mortality assessment tests were performed with the parasitic wasp, Aphidius colemani. Quantities of chlorothalonit (TPN) and spinosad in individual wasps were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. TPN showed no side-effect on contact with dry film or oral administration. The lethal dosage of spinosad on plant leaves was estimated at ca. 0.2 mu g/cm(2) for individual wasps, and was supported by the results of residual activity tests. Furthermore, a minimum of around 0.1 ng of spinosad was observed in dead individuals exposed to plant leaves treated with a lethal dosage of the posticide. (c) Pesticide Science Society of Japan

 

Lethal and sub-lethal selectivity of fenbutatin oxide and sulfur to the predator Iphiseiodes zuluagai (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and its prey , Oligonychus ilicis (Acari: Tetranychidae), in Brazilian coffee.

Author: Teodoro, A.V.; Fadini, M.A. M; Lemos, W.P.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Pallini, A.

Year: 2005

Journal: Experimental and Applied Acarology

Volume: 36

Pages: 61-70

Abstract: Abstract  Lethal concentration (LC) has been widely used to estimate pesticide toxicity. However, it does not consider the sub-lethal effects. Therefore we included the instantaneous rate of increase in association with LC to estimate population-level effects of the acaricides fenbutatin oxide and sulfur on the predator Iphiseiodes zuluagai and its prey, the phytophagous southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis. The predator was 32.84x and 17.20x more tolerant to fenbutatin oxide and sulfur, respectively, than its prey, based on LC50 estimates obtained from acute concentration–mortality bioassays. The instantaneous rate of population growth in both mite species decreased with increasing acaricide concentration. Both acaricides provided effective control of O. ilicis at their recommended concentrations, but sulfur drastically compromised the predator populations quickly leading them to extinction due to the low reproductive potential of this species compared with its prey.

 

Keywords  Acaricide selectivity – Acaricide tolerance – Population-level effect – Reproductive impact – Southern red mite

 

Effects of sulfur on Trichogramma egg parasitoids in vineyards: measuring toxic effects and establishing release windows

Author: Thomson, L. J.; Glenn, D. C.; Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2000

Journal: Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture

Volume: 40

Pages: 1165-1171

Abstract: Trichogramma parasitoids are a commonly released biological control agent against Lepidopteran pests. In vineyards in south-eastern Australia, Trichogramma carverae is released to control lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), a pest of grapevines. Sulfur is also sprayed on the vines to control powdery mildew and mites. Our experiments aimed to assess the potential impact of sulfur use on released and resident Trichogramma species (T. carverae, T. funiculatum) and to devise a protocol to maximise the potential of Trichogramma and optimally integrate the use of chemicals with biocontrol. Laboratory and field studies indicate that sulfur is harmful to adults and to immature stages contained within hosts where it increases mortality and reduces fitness of the emerged wasps. Persistence trials showed that release of Trichogramma 6 days after sulfur spraying will reduce the effects on released organisms. To reduce the impact on resident Trichogramma, other chemicals will need to be used.

 

Effect of selected insecticides on the natural enemies Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae), Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae), and Bracon mellitor, Cardiochiles nigriceps, and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera : Braconidae) in cotton

Author: Tillman, P. G.; Mulrooney, J. E.

Year: 2000

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Pages: 1638-1643

Abstract: We evaluated the toxicity of three insecticides (lambda cyhalothrin, spinosad, and S-1812) to the natural enemies Bracon mellitor Say. Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck, Coleomgilla maculata De Geer, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), Geocoris punctipes (Say), and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, in topical, residual, and field assays. Lambda cyhalothrin exhibited the greatest toxicity to the natural enemies. In topical toxicity tests, lambda cyhalothrin adversely affected each natural enemy species studied. Residues of lambda cyhalothrin on cotton leaves were toxic to B. mellitor, C. nigriceps, C. maculata, and G, punctipes. Interestingly residues of this insecticide were not very toxic to C. marginiventris and H, convergens Geocoris punctipes and C. maculata numbers in the field generally were significantly lower for lambda cyhalothrin treatments than for the other four treatments, substantiating the previous tests. Although cotton aphids began to increase over all treatments around the middle of the test period, the number of cotton aphids in the lambda cyhalothrin plots was significantly higher than the number in any of the other treatments. As cotton aphids increased in lambda cyhalothrin field diets, the predator H. convergens also increased in number, indicating that lambda cyhalothrin did not adversely affect it in accordance with the residual tests. Spinosad exhibited marginal to excellent selectivity, but was highly toxic to each parasitoid species and G. punctipes in topical toxicity tests and to B. mellitor in residual tests. Spinosad generally did not affect the number of G. punctipes, H. convergens, and C, maculata in the field except for one day after the second application for G. punctipes. S-1812 exhibited good to excellent selectivity to the natural enemies. Some reduction of G. punctipes occurred for only a short period after the first and second application of this insecticide in the field. H. convergens and C. maculata were affected very little by S-1812.

 

Toxicity of selective insecticides to Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the American serpentine leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera : Agrizomydae)

Author: Tran, D. H.; Takagi, M.; Takasu, K.

Year: 2005

Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University

Volume: 50

Pages: 109-118

Abstract: The susceptibilities of Neochrysocharis formosa, a larval parasitoid of the American serpentine leafminer Liriomyza trifolii, to three insecticides (imidacloprid, pymetrozine and lufenuron) were investigated in the laboratory. Individual parasitoids were placed in the grass vials whose internal surface was coated with the insecticides. For 24 h exposure, the LC50 values were 0.033 mu g/0.5ml for imidacloprid, 75.57 mu g/0.5ml for pymetrozine and 0.417 mu l/0.5ml for lufenuron. For imidacloprid and lufenuron, these values were 775.5 and 14.9 times lower than the recommended concentrations, respectively. Even in the concentrations lower than the LG(50), parasitoid survival rapidly decreased with time, and the longevity of parasitoid females was also reduced. These results suggested that all of imidacloprid, pymetrozine and lufenuron were harmful to N. formosa.

 

Effect of the ecdysone agonists, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, on the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

Author: Trisyono, A.; Puttler, B.; Chippendale, G. M.

Year: 2000

Journal: Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Volume: 94

Pages: 103-105

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Evaluation on the safety of pesticides to green lacewing, Mallada basalis larvae.

Author: Tzeng, C. C.; Kao, S. S.

Year: 1996

Journal: Plant Protection Bulletin

Volume: 38

Pages: 203-213

Abstract: Unavailable

 

Integrating pesticide effects with inundative biological control: interpretation of pesticide toxicity curves for Anaphes iole in strawberries

Author: Udayagiri, S.; Norton, A. P.; Welter, S. C.

Year: 2000

Journal: Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Volume: 95

Pages: 87-95

Abstract: We examined pesticide residue effects on the egg parasitoid Anaphes iole Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an inundative biological control agent for Lygus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae) in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Our objectives were to identify compatible pesticides, determine appropriate parasitoid release timings for minimizing harmful effects, and develop an approach for interpreting pesticide toxicity curves. Six insecticides, 2 acaricides and 6 fungicides were tested, and survivorship of adult A. iole exposed to foliar residues for 48 h, at 4-6 different times after pesticide application, was examined. A logistic function was developed for incorporating control mortality at each test date. Values for LT50 (Lethal Time for 50% mortality) and mortalities on day 1 (initial mortality) and day 13 (estimated maximum time parasitoid releases can be delayed under extreme summer conditions) were estimated. In the study, insecticide residues proved to be the most toxic, followed by those from acaricides while most fungicides were least toxic. Among insecticides, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin and carbaryl caused the greatest mortality (estimated mortality on day 13 > 75%). Residues of naled resulted in the least mortality (LT50 = 3.2 days) followed by methomyl (LT50 = 8.3 days) and malathion (LT50 = 13.2 days). Estimated mortality = 12.3% on day 13 for the acaricide propargite and < 1% for abamectin. For the fungicides benomyl, captan, myclobutanil and thiram, estimated mortality on day 1 was < 1%, and for iprodione it was < 6%, indicating compatibility with A. iole releases. For sulfur, LT50 = 0, but the mortality decay curve was relatively flat (estimated mortality on day 13 = 13.6%). These results suggest possibilities for integrating A. iole releases with certain pesticide programs by appropriate timing of pesticide applications to minimize negative impacts.

 

The toxicity of aphicide residues to beneficial Invertebrates in cereal crops

Author: Unal, G.; Jepson, P. C.

Year: 1991

Journal: Annals of Applied Biology

Volume: 118

Pages: 493-502

Abstract: The toxicity of dimethoate, deltamethrin and pirimicarb residues to Bembidion lampros and Coccinella septempunctata was evaluated by confining groups of insects to winter wheat foliage and soil for 24 h at different times after treatment in the field. Flag leaf residues were found to be more toxic than first leaf residues: soil residues were the least toxic with pirimicarb showing virtually no soil toxicity. In general, dimethoate and deltamethrin showed similar levels of foliar toxicity with flag leaf toxicity on the first day after treatment being in the range 60-80% for B. lampros; deltamethrin was however, less toxic than dimethoate at ground level. Both of these products were more toxic than pirimicarb. The long-term exposure of insects, surviving the 24 h bioassays, to treated soil at different times following application resulted in further mortality and provided estimates of the maximum levels of mortality that populations of predators might suffer migrating into the crop at different times following application. Dimethoate was shown to be particularly harmful at the current recommended field application rate and reduced doses were proposed to limit the severity of the initial effects.

 

Toxicity of some pesticides to Eretmocerus debachi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), an important parsitoid of  Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

Author: Uygun, N.; Sengonca, C.; Ulusoy, M. R.; Kersting, U.

Year: 1994

Journal: Bulletin of Entomological Research

Volume: 84

Pages: 119-122

Abstract: The effects of nine pesticides commonly used in citrus orchards were tested on adults, larvae and pupae of the parasitoid Eretmocerus debachi Rose & Rosen in the laboratory. All pesticides caused immediate mortality to adult parasitoid females and significant losses in efficiency if applied to larvae of E. debachi in its host Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana). Only the fungicide captan and the insecticide Mercathion (malathion) were slightly harmful and harmless to the parasitoid larva. Gramoxone (paraquat), Dursban 4 (chlopyrifos-ethyl), Mercathion and Supracide (methidathion) were harmful to E. debachi pupae, while five other pesticides were only moderately harmful or harmless.

 

Efficacy of the insect growth regulators tebufenozide and fenoxycarb for lepidopteran pest control in apples, and their compatibility with biological control for integrated pest management

Author: Valentine, B. J.; Gurr, G. M.; Thwaite, W. G.

Year: 1996

Journal: Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture

Volume: 36

Pages: 501-506

Abstract: The insect growth regulators tebufenozide and fenoxycarb were compared with the industry standard organophosphate, azinphos-methyl, in a replicated field trial. In both the 1992-93 and 1993-94 seasons, the 2 insect growth regulators maintained damage levels to harvested and windfall apples below 1% for both codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) and lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana Walker). This was despite considerable pest pressure as indicated by pheromone trap catches of both species. In the first season of the trial, E. postvittana was controlled more effectively (P<0.05) by tebufenozide than by fenoxycarb. In both seasons, populations of two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and European red mite, Panonychus ulmi Koch, were higher in plots under azinphos-methyl treatment than in either insect growth regulator treatment. Neither insect growth regulator appeared to suppress populations of the phytoseiids Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. Limb jarring in the second season showed statistically significant (P<0.05) differences in populations of other predators which may have contributed to the biological control of phytophagous mites in the insect growth regulator treatments. Numbers of spiders, Stethorus spp., and apple dimpling bug (Campylomma liebknechti Girault) nymphs were all lower in the azinphos-methyl treatment. Results are discussed in relation to reducing dependence on conventional pesticides by use of more target-specific compounds which may be more compatible with biological control.

 

Susceptibility of three Stethorus spp. (Coleopotera: Coccinellidae) to selected chemicals used in NSW apple orchards.

Author: Walters, P.J.

Year: 1976

Journal: Journal of the Australian Entomological Society – (Formerly –  Journal of Australian Entomological Science)

Volume: 15

Pages: 49-52

Abstract: The contact susceptibility of Stethorus loxtoni, S. nigripes and S. vagans in the egg, larval and adult stages to 27 chemicals was assessed.  The chemicals tested at field concentration included insecticides, miticides, fungicides, herbicides, chemical thinners and an antifeedant.  Seven of these chemicals were highly toxic e.g., azinphos-methyl, DDT, carbaryl, endosulfan, malathion, metidathion, tetrachlorvinphos, while twelve wer non-toxic e.g., vamidothion, Bacillus thuringiensis, Ryania, phenisobromolate, chlordimeform, cyclosulfyne, azaform, benomyl, captan, diuron, N.A.A., fentin hydroxide.  The feasibility of these chemicals being used in an integrated control progra is discussed.

 

Coccinellids in cotton: Population response to pesticide application and feeding response to cotton aphids (Homoptera : Aphididae)

Author: Wells, M. L.; McPherson, R. M.; Ruberson, J. R.; Herzog, G. A.

Year: 2001

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 30

Pages: 785-793

Abstract: Four treatments were evaluated during 1997 and 1998 to determine the effects of pesticides on coccinellid densities: (1) untreated control, (2) foliar applications of a systemic insecticide, imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F), when spray thresholds of aphid numbers were exceeded in all plots, (3) weekly foliar applications of a fungicide, chlorothalonil (Bravo 720), and (4) weekly foliar applications of imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F). The coccinellids observed in Georgia cotton during the study included Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, Scymnus spp., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L., and Coleomegilla maculata (Mulsant). During 1997, H. convergens and Scymnus spp. comprised 75 and 15%, respectively, of all coccinellids observed during the study. During 1998, Scymnus spp. comprised 44% of all coccinellids, and H. convergens comprised 33%. Coccinellid population densities closely tracked those of cotton aphids during both years. Cotton aphid and coccinellid densities were greatest in the chlorothalonil treatment during both years of the study. In functional feeding response experiments, fourth-instar and adult Scynmus creperus exhibited a type H functional response to A. gossypii density under laboratory conditions, Fourth instars exhibited a higher search rate and shorter handling time than adult S. creperus. Collectively, coccinellids are a valuable component of the cotton aphid’s natural enemy complex.

 

Doreen and Victoria: viticultural supermites.

Author: Whitney, J.; James, D. G.

Year: 1992

Editor: Corey, S. A.; Dall, D. J.; Milne, W. M.

Book Title: Pest Control and Sustainable Agriculture

City: Canberra

Pages: 240-241

Short Title: Doreen and Victoria: viticultural supermites.

 

 

Effects of insecticides on non-target organisms in African agroecosystems: a case for establishing regional testing programmes

Author: Wiktelius, S.; Chiverton, P. A.; Meguenni, H.; Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Umeh, E. D. N.; Egwuatu, R. I.; Minja, E.; Makusi, R.; Tukahirwa, E.; Tinzaara, W.; Deedat, Y.

Year: 1999

Journal: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment

Volume: 75

Pages: 121-131

Abstract: Field trials were simultaneously conducted in Algeria, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia between 1992 and 1995 in order to determine the effects of organochlorine pesticides lindane tall countries) and endosulfan (two countries) on cion-target arthropods in African maize agroecosystems. In addition, a laboratory screening test was conducted to determine the initial toxicity’s of several organochlorines and a synthetic pyrethroid to three species of non-target arthropods. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of Collembola in over 80% of the field trials for an average of six weeks. Similarly, spiders were reduced in 53 % of the trials for an average of 2,8 week, and ants were reduced in 64% of the trials for an average of 2.5 week. The lindane treatment significantly reduced organic matter breakdown in over 45% of the trials, whereas endosulfan had no effect. The latter had little or no effect on non-target arthropods. The lindane treatment significantly reduced plant damage in all countries. However, corresponding significant increases in yield were observed in less than 50%. There was an apparent consistent effect of lindane on different non-target groups as indicated by the positive correlation’s between these variables. Endosulfan was found to be harmless to all the non-target arthropod species included in the laboratory screening tests. The order of toxicity was lindane = deltamethrin much greater than chlorpyrifos much greater than endosulfan. It is concluded that African countries need to develop procedures for testing pesticides in Africa in order to arrive at the correct conclusions concerning adverse side effects from pesticide use. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

 

A space-efficient contact toxicity bioassay for minute Hymenoptera, used to test the effects of novel and conventional insecticides on the egg parasitoids Anaphes iole and Trichogramma pretiosum

Author: Williams, L.; Price, L. D.

Year: 2004

Journal: Biocontrol

Volume: 49

Pages: 163-185

Abstract: We developed and tested a novel bioassay method for assessment of contact residues of pesticides to minute Hymenoptera. This method maintained a plant-toxin-insect interface representative of natural conditions in the field or greenhouse, and was space-efficient. The procedure was useful in studies with both foliar residues and systemic uptake. Furthermore, the method was relatively straightforward, easy to setup, and inexpensive. Tests with the egg parasitoids Anaphes iole Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) confirmed that this method provided consistent, repeatable assessment of concentration- response relationships for several insecticide classes. Other researchers studying pesticide effects on minute Hymenoptera might find this bioassay method helpful, especially in situations where space is limited. We discovered differential susceptibility of these parasitoids to spinosad, thiamethoxam, and oxamyl. The order of toxicity for A. iole was spinosad> thiamethoxam> oxamyl, and for T. pretiosum was thiamethoxam> spinosad> oxamyl. Our results underscored the danger of generalizing pesticide effects across even closely related insects, and demonstrated that novel ‘selective’ insecticides are highly toxic to A. iole and T. pretiosum.

 

Toxicity of greenhouse pesticides to multicolored Asian lady beetles, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae)

Author: Youn, Y. N.; Seo, M. J.; Shin, J. G.; Jang, C.; Yu, Y. M.

Year: 2003

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 28

Pages: 164-170

Abstract: A variety of insecticides, acaricides, and fungicides is used in greenhouses to protect plants. As predacious ladybirds are also used to control aphids, it is important to understand the effects of such pesticides on these beneficial insects. We examined the susceptibility to all developmental stages of the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), to 12 agents: four insecticides, four acaricides and four fungicides. Etofenprox and acetamiprid were highly toxic to most developmental stages, and also in the adult at 200 mg [AI]/L and 40 mg [AI]/L (recommended dosages for aphid control). Thiamethoxam caused knockdown of larvae, pupae, and adults; however, most recovered within 24 h. Imidacloprid, applied at 50 mg [AI]/L, produced LC50 values of 30.3 and 190.2 mg [AI]/L for 3rd and 4th instars, respectively. Abamectin was highly toxic to eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult ladybirds at rates under 18.4 mg [AI]/L. However, recommended doses of other acaricides were very safe to all stages except for the egg stage of H. axyridis. The fungicide pyrazophos was highly toxic to eggs and larvae at a rate much lower than the recommended dose, while other tested fungicides were not toxic to any of the ladybird stages at rates over 1000 mg [AI]/L. Generally, the 1st and 2nd instars of H. axyridis were very sensitive to most of the tested insecticides and acaricides. Fungicides, on the other hand, were generally harmless to H. axyridis. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

 

The side-effects of plant protection products used in olive cultivation on the hymenopterous egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal

Author: Youssef, A. I.; Nasr, F. N.; Stefanos, S. S.; Elkhair, S. S. A.; Shehata, W. A.; Agamy, E.; Herz, A.; Hassan, S. A.

Year: 2004

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology

Volume: 128

Pages: 593-599

Abstract: Six insecticides (Malathion, Quik, Cidial, Dimethoate, Actellic, Deltamethrin) and two mineral oils (Super misrona and Kemesol) are currently used to control the most important pests in Mediterranean olive cultivation (olive fly, olive moth and black scale). Potential side-effects of these compounds were tested on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal, following recommendations of the working group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’ of the International Organization for Biological Control, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS). In the present study, three different types of test methods were carried out: (1) initial toxicity dose-response test on adult wasps; (2) initial toxicity test on pupae, using field recommended rates; and (3) persistent test on olive foliage to assess the duration of harmful activity. The six insecticides tested reduced parasitism by 80-95% and rated as moderately harmful at the field recommended doses. The two mineral oils reduced parasitism up to 25% and were therefore rated as harmless to the adult stage of the parasitoid. The results of the pupal test (parasitoid pupa inside the host egg) showed that Malathion was harmless; Quik, Actellic and Cidial were slightly harmful, while Dimethoate and Deltamethrin were moderately harmful. The results of the persistence test on olive foliage showed that Malathion, Quik and Actellic were slightly persistent, while Cidial, Dimethoate and Deltamethrin were moderately persistent.

 

Population densities of Tetranychus spp. (Acari: Tetranychidae) after treatment with insecticides for Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

Author: Bentley, W. J., Zalom, F. G., Barnett, W. W. and Sanderson, J. P.

Year: 1987

Pages: 193-200

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 80

Abstract: Unavailable

 

 

Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

Author: Bernard, M. B., Cole, P., Kobelt, A., Horne, P. A., Altmann, J., Wratten, S. D. and Yen, A. L.

Year: 2010

Pages: 2061-2071

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 103

Abstract: Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in “worst-case scenario” direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulphur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 litre/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trioxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/ fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulphur (400 g/100 litre), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed.

 

 

Testing for non-target effects of spiromesifen on Eretmocerus mundus and Orius laevigatus under greenhouse conditions

Author: Bielza, P., Fernández, E., Grávalos, C. and Izquierdo, J.

Year: 2009

Pages: 229-236

Journal: BioControl

Volume: 54

Abstract: Spiromesifen is a novel insecticide/acaricide belonging to the new chemical class of spirocyclic phenyl-substituted tetronic acids, and it is especially active against whiteflies and tetranychid spider mite species. In the biologically based integrated pest management (IPM) programs in vegetable crops in south-eastern Spain, the key natural enemies include the parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for sweetpotato whitefly control, and the minute pirate bug, Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for western flower thrips control. Side effects of spiromesifen on E. mundus and O. laevigatus, were evaluated by laboratory studies and field trials in commercial greenhouses under IPM programs. Results indicate that spiromesifen had favourable selectivity to O. laevigatus and E. mundus and would complement biological control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) by E. mundus.

 

 

Effect of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on egg hatch, nymph development, adult emergence and reproduction of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

Author: Boina, D. R., Rogers, M. E., Wang, N. and Stelinski, L. L.

Year: 2010

Pages: 349-357

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 66

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is a vector of bacteria presumably responsible for huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus. In this laboratory study, an investigation was made of the activity of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on ACP eggs, nymphs and adults to evaluate its potential as a biorational insecticide for inclusion in an integrated pest management (IPM) program for ACP. RESULTS: Irrespective of egg age, timing or method of treatment, a significantly lower percentage of eggs (5–29%) hatched after exposure to 64 and 128 µg ml−1 of pyriproxyfen. Only 0–36% of early instars (first, second and third) and 25–74% of late instars (fourth and fifth) survived to adults following exposure to 16, 32 and 64 µg ml−1 of pyriproxyfen. However, 15–20% of adults that emerged following treatment as late instars exhibited morphological abnormalities. Furthermore, pyriproxyfen adversely affected reproduction (fecundity and fertility) of adults that emerged from treated fifth instars or that were treated topically with 0.04 µg as adults. CONCLUSIONS: Application of pyriproxyfen at 64 µg ml−1 resulted in greater inhibition of egg hatch and suppression of adult emergence compared with lower rates. Pyriproxyfen also markedly reduced female fecundity and egg viability for adults that were exposed either as fifth instars or as newly emerged adults. The ovicidal, larvicidal and reproductive effects against ACP suggest that pyriproxyfen is suitable for integration into an IPM program for ACP.

 

 

Toxicity of indoxacarb to two species of predacious mites and a predacious Mirid

Author: Bostanian, N. J., Vincent, C., Hardman, J. M. and Larocque, N.

Year: 2004

Pages: 483-486

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 60

Abstract: Indoxacarb is a novel oxadiazine pro-insecticide that has no toxic effects on the adults, fecundity and eclosion of Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), a predacious phytoseiid, or Agistemus fleschneri Summers, a predacious stigmaeid. It is toxic to Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say), a predacious mirid that has been reported from several Quebec orchards where IPM programs are used. The LC50 for this mirid is about one-half of the recommended dose (0.054 g a.i. litre−1) of indoxacarb for apple orchards. Following an application, the intoxicated mirids remained motionless as their prolegs and posterior had paralyzed. Twenty-four hours later, they appeared smaller, shrunken and severely desiccated.

 

 

Selectivity of chlorantraniliprole to parasitoid wasps

Author: Brugger, K. E., Cole, P. G., Newman, I. C., Parker, N., Scholz, B., Suvagia, P., Walker, G. and Hammond, T. G.

Year: 2010

Pages: 1075-1081

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 66

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide registered for use in vegetables, fruits, grains and turf against a variety of insect pests. The objective of this article is to summarize results of acute toxicity testing of chlorantraniliprole on seven species of parasitic wasps with wide geographic distribution and relevance to different crops and integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. RESULTS: Tier-1, worst-case laboratory studies evaluated wasp survival and reproduction following different exposure concentrations and scenarios to chlorantraniliprole (i.e. fresh-dried spray deposits on glass plates, direct contact, ingestion, egg card, dipped leaf residue bioassays, sprayed mummies). No statistically significant effects on adult survival, percentage parasitism or emergence were observed following exposures to chlorantraniliprole compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Chlorantraniliprole was harmless to the parasitoid wasp species tested according to IOBC classification criteria (<30% effects) and may be a useful tool in IPM programmes.

 

 

Commercial agrochemical applications in vineyards do not influence ant communities

Author: Chong, C. S., Hoffmann, A. A. and Thomson, L. J.

Year: 2007

Pages: 1374-83

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 36

Abstract: Ants have been widely used as bioindicators for various terrestrial monitoring and assessment programs but are seldom considered in evaluation of nontarget pesticide effect. Much chemical assessment has been biased toward laboratory and bioassay testing for control of specific pest ant species. Several field studies that did explore the nontarget impacts of pesticides on ants have reported contradictory findings. To address the impact of chemical applications on ants, we tested the response of epigeal ant assemblages and community structure to three pesticide gradients (cumulative International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control toxicity rating, chlorpyrifos use rate, and sulphur use rate) in 19 vineyards. Ordination analyses using nonmetric multidimensional scaling detected community structures at species and genus levels, but the structures were not explained by any pesticide variables. There was no consistent pattern in species and genus percentage complementarities and ant assemblages along pesticide gradients. In contrast, ant community structure was influenced by the presence of shelterbelts near the sampling area. Reasons for the resilience of ants to pesticides are given and assessment at the colony level instead of workers abundance is suggested. The presence of Linepithema humile (Mayr) is emphasized.

 

 

Impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on natural enemies in greenhouse and interiorscape environments

Author: Cloyd, R. A. and Bethke, J. A.

Year: 2011

Pages: 3-9

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 67

Abstract: The neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and clothianidin are commonly used in greenhouses and/or interiorscapes (plant interiorscapes and conservatories) to manage a wide range of plant-feeding insects such as aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies. However, these systemic insecticides may also be harmful to natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids. Predatory insects and mites may be adversely affected by neonicotinoid systemic insecticides when they: (1) feed on pollen, nectar or plant tissue contaminated with the active ingredient; (2) consume the active ingredient of neonicotinoid insecticides while ingesting plant fluids; (3) feed on hosts (prey) that have consumed leaves contaminated with the active ingredient. Parasitoids may be affected negatively by neonicotinoid insecticides because foliar, drench or granular applications may decrease host population levels so that there are not enough hosts to attack and thus sustain parasitoid populations. Furthermore, host quality may be unacceptable for egg laying by parasitoid females. In addition, female parasitoids that host feed may inadvertently ingest a lethal concentration of the active ingredient or a sublethal dose that inhibits foraging or egg laying. There are, however, issues that require further consideration, such as: the types of plant and flower that accumulate active ingredients, and the concentrations in which they are accumulated; the influence of flower age on the level of exposure of natural enemies to the active ingredient; the effect of neonicotinoid metabolites produced within the plant. As such, the application of neonicotinoid insecticides in conjunction with natural enemies in protected culture and interiorscape environments needs further investigation.

 

 

Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium

Author: Cloyd, R. A., Timmons, N. R., Goebel, J. M. and Kemp, K. E.

Year: 2009

Pages: 1750-1758

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 102

Abstract: The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates of 8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behaviour experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae.

 

 

Impact of azadirachtin on vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reproduction.

Author: Cowles, R.

Year: 2004

Pages: 291-294

Journal: Agricultural and Forest Entomology

Volume: 6

Abstract: 1The dose–response of azadirachtin on vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius), reproduction is investigated by confining adults to feed on treated Taxus × media leaves, and by counting and evaluating development in the resulting eggs.

2A dosage-dependent reduction in oviposition is discovered for foliar surface residues of azadirachtin, with an EC50 of 25–50 parts per million (p.p.m) and 99.2% inhibition of viable egg production with 100 p.p.m.

3Switching weevils from treated to untreated foliage allows reproductive capability to be restored for weevils that cease egg laying after azadirachtin exposure of 50 p.p.m. Weevils that had already started laying eggs in untreated groups soon cease oviposition once switched to azadirachtin-treated foliage.

4A transovarial effect results in a decrease in the percentage of viable eggs as the azadirachtin concentration increases.

5The amount of feeding on foliage does not appreciably decrease at these hormonally effective concentrations, and adult weevil mortality is only slightly greater in the azadirachtin-treated groups. Therefore, the overall effect of azadirachtin on weevil populations in the field is difficult to assess, except by collecting weevils to determine whether they are able to lay viable eggs.

 

 

Laboratory bioassays and field evaluation of insecticides for the control of Anthonomus rubi, Lygus rugulipennis and Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and effects on beneficial species, in UK strawberry production

Author: Fitzgerald, J.

Year: 2004

Pages: 801-809

Journal: Crop Protection

Volume: 23

Abstract: Abamectin, Beauveria bassiana, buprofezin, pymetrozine, tebufenpyrad, acetamiprid and the coded product 60145 were tested in laboratory bioassays to determine their effects on the strawberry pests Anthonomus rubi, Lygus rugulipennis and Chaetosiphon fragaefolii and on the predatory species Phytoseiulus persimilis and Chrysoperla carnea. Abamectin, acetamiprid, tebufenpyrad and 60145 were the most effective insecticides against the pests. These four compounds all had some effect on P. persimilis, but acetamiprid was the least toxic (63% mortality after 48 h). Abamectin, tebufenpyrad and 60145 had no detectable effect on C. carnea larvae, whereas acetamiprid caused 38% mortality after 72 h. In field experiments where acetamiprid, 60145 and abamectin were tested against C. fragaefolii, acetamiprid was very effective at reducing numbers of the aphid. Naturally occurring beneficial anthocorid species were reduced in number but not eliminated in the acetamiprid treatment. In field tests acetamiprid, abamectin and thiacloprid were less effective against L. rugulipennis than the industry standard chlorpyrifos. Reductions were small but statistically significant in the acetamiprid and thiacloprid treatments. Fruit damage was also reduced in these treatments. There was no detectable effect of these insecticides on naturally occurring beneficial species.

 

 

Tandem use of selective insecticides and natural enemies for effective, reduced-risk pest management

Author: Gentz, M. C., Murdoch, G. and King, G. F.

Year: 2010

Pages: 208-215

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 52

Abstract: Selective chemical insecticides have become the dominant approach for management of recalcitrant and resistant insect pests, and the prospects for use of these chemicals in combination with biocontrol agents are on the rise. These chemical compounds, when used in combination with an effective natural enemy, may provide more comprehensive prophylactic and remedial treatments in the context of an integrated pest management program (IPM) than either approach alone. Many of these compounds have promise for a diversity of applications, including sustainable agriculture, control of urban pests, and invasive species eradication. Unfortunately, there are only a limited number of studies in which the effect of these insecticides on natural enemies has been examined. In this article, we examine the risk of several classes of insecticidal compounds to non-target animals, particularly natural enemies and pollinators, and review the most promising compounds for combined deployment with biological agents.

 

 

Effect of reduced risk pesticides on greenhouse vegetable arthropod biological control agents

Author: Gradish, A. E., Scott-Dupree, C. D., Shipp, L., Harris, C. R. and Ferguson, G.

Year: 2011

Pages: 82-86

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 67

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Arthropod biological control agents (BCAs) are commonly released for greenhouse vegetable insect pest management. Nevertheless, chemicals remain a necessary control tactic for certain insect pests and diseases and they can have negative impacts on BCAs. The compatibility of some formulated reduced risk insecticides (abamectin, metaflumizone and chlorantraniliprole) and fungicides (myclobutanil, potassium bicarbonate and cyprodinil + fludioxonil) used, or with promise for use, in Canadian greenhouses with Orius insidiosus (Say), Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Eretmocerus eremicus (Rose & Zolnerovich) was determined through laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. RESULTS: Overall, the insecticides and fungicides were harmless as residues to adult BCAs. However, abamectin was slightly to moderately harmful to O. insidiosus and A. swirskii in laboratory bioassays, whereas metaflumizone was slightly harmful to E. eremicus. CONCLUSIONS: In general, these products appear safe to use prior to establishment/release of these adult BCAs

 

 

Results of the third joint pesticide testing programme by the IOBC/WPRS working group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’.

Author: Hassan, S. A., Bigler, F., Blaisinger, P., Bogenschutz, H., Boller, E., Brun, J., Chiverton, P., Edwards, P., Huang, P., Inglefield, C., Naton, E., Oomen, P. A., Overmeer, W. P., Rieckmann, W., Samsoe-Petersen, L., Staubli, L., Tuset, J. J., Viggiani, G. and van Wetswinkel, G.

Year: 1987

Pages: 92-107

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology

Volume: 103

Abstract: Results are presented of laboratory, semi-field and field tests to assess the side effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms obtained during the third testing programme of the Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms” of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC), West Palaearctic Regional Section (WPRS). The programme included 22 pesticides, 19 beneficial organisms, and was carried out by 19 group members in 9 European countries. Beside the results of the third testing programme, data on the side effects of 62 pesticides tested in all three joint programmes carried out between 1977 and 1985 are summarized in 7 different croporientated tables. These tables include beneficial organisms that are relevant to, and pesticides that are used on (a) vegetable crops (especially Brassica spp.), (b) glasshouse crops, (c) top fruit, (d) cereals, (e) root and forage crops (sugar-beet, potato, rape, corn), (f) vine and (g) forestry. Among the 62 pesticides tested, the following 25 compounds were of limited persistence and/or were relatively less toxic to the natural enemies tested: Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis), Torque (fenbutatin oxide, AAzomate (benzoximate), Dimilin (diflubenzuron), Tedion V 18 (tetradifon), Kelthane (dicofol), Spruzit-Nova-flüssig (pyrethrum + piperonylbutoxide), Pirimor-Granulat (pirimicarb), Nimrod (bupirimate), Bayleton (triadimefon), Ronilan (vinclozolin), Orthocid 83 (captan), Cercobin-M (thiophanat-methyl), Ortho Difolatan (captafol), Derosal (carbendazim), Daconil 500 (chlorothalonil), Plondrel (ditalimfos), Pomarsol forte (thiram), Dithane Ultra (mancozeb), Illoxan (diclofop-methyl), Semeron (desmetryn), Betanal (phenmedipham), Kerb 50 W (propyzamid), Cycocel Extra (chlormequat), Rhodofix (naphthyl acetic acid).

 

 

Results of the fourth joint pesticide testing programme carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms”

Author: Hassan, S. A., Bigler, F., Bogenschütz, H., Boller, E., Brun, J., Chiverton, P., Edwards, P., Mansour, F., Naton, E., Oomen, P. A., Overmeer, W. P. J., Polgar, L., Rieckmann, W., Samsøe-Petersen, L., Stäubli, A., Sterk, G., Tavares, K., Tuset, J. J., Viggiani, G. and Vivas, A. G.

Year: 1988

Pages: 321-329

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology

Volume: 105

Abstract: Abstract The side effects of 9 insecticides, 8 fungicides and 4 herbicides on 19 different beneficial arthropods and 1 entomopathogenic fungus were tested by the IOBC/WPRS Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms”. Twenty research workers from 13 countries participated. A combination of 5 different types of test methods was used: a. laboratory, exposed life stage of the organism, b. laboratory, less exposed life stage, c. semi-field, initial toxicity, d. semi-field, persistence (duration of harmful activity), e. field. Although nearly all the insecticides tested were harmful to most of the beneficial insects tested, especially in the first test, few of them were shown to be less harmful or less persistent in further testing.The fungicides Milgo-E (ethirimol) and Trimidal EC (nuarimol) which are used on cereal crops as well as Rubigan Vloeibaar (fenarimol) and Ortho-Phaltan 50 (folpet) which are used in fruit orchards were found to be harmless to all beneficial organisms relevant for these crops tested in the experiments and can be recommended for use in integrated control programmes.With different predatory mites, there was clear agreement between the results of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments. The insecticides Asepta Nexion (bromophos), Birlane EC 40 (chlorfenvinphos), Dursban Spritzpulver (chlorpyrifos), Ambush C (cypermethrin), Basudine Vloeibaar (diazinon), Perfekthion (dimethoate), Phosdrine W 10 (mevinphos), Dimecron 20 (phosphamidon), Hostathion (triazophos) as well as the fungicide Polyram-Combi (metiram) were found to be harmful to predatory mites in all types of tests. The fungicides Milgo-E (ethirimol), Corbel (fenpropimorph) and Trimidal EC (nuarimol) were harmless. The agreement of results between the laboratory, semi-field and field tests indicated that, at least with predatory mites, reliable results can also be expected on the harmfulness of pesticides from laboratory experiments. The results also showed that 6 insecticides, 1 fungicide and 2 herbicides were harmless to the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.

 

 

Results of the joint pesticide testing programme by the IOBC/WPRS working group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Arthropods’

Author: Hassan, S. A., Bigler, F., Bogenschutz, H., Brown, J. U., Firth, S. I., huang, P., Ledieu, P., Naton, E., Oomen, P. A., Overmeer, W. J. P., Rieckmann, W., Samsoe-Petersen, L., Viggiani, G. and van Zon, A. Q.

Year: 1983

Pages: 151-158

Journal: Journal of Applied Entomology

Volume: 95

Abstract: The side effects of 40 pesticides on 9 to 13 beneficial arthropods were tested by members of the Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Arthropods” of the International Organization for Biological Control in 6 different countries using standard test methods. The beneficial arthropods tested were Amblyseius potentillae, Anthocoris nemorum, Chrysopa carnea, Coccygomimus turionellae, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Drino inconspicua, Encarsia formosa, Leptomastix dactylopii, Opius sp., Phygadeuon trichops, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Syrphus vitripennis, Triebogramma cacoeciae.The insecticides Dipel, Torque, Dimilin, AAzomate, the fungicides Nimrod, Cercobin-M, Ortho Difolatan, Orthocid 83, Bayleton, Ronilan, Derosal, the herbicides Illoxan, Kerb 50 W and Semeron were harmless to most of the beneficials tested and can be recommended for use in integrated control programmes. The remaining 16 insecticides, 5 fungicides and 5 herbicides were harmful or moderately harmful to most of the test organisms. The further testing of these preparations using standard semi-field or field test methods is recommended.

 

 

The effect of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target spiders: Part II. Indirect effects on Lepthyphantes tenuis in field margins

Author: Haughton, A. J., Bell, J. R., Boatman, N. D. and Wilcox, A.

Year: 2001

Pages: 1037-1042

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 57

Abstract: We have examined the indirect effect of the herbicide glyphosate on the spider Lepthyphantes tenuis in field margins. Glyphosate was applied to a randomised block design field experiment comprising 360, 720 and 1440 g glyphosate AE ha−1 treatments and an unsprayed control. Spiders were sampled in each month from June to October 1998. Spider abundance was significantly lower in all the treatments than in the unsprayed control. Abundance was also significantly lower in the 720 and 1440 g treatments than in the 360 g treatment. No significant difference could be detected between the 720 and 1440 g treatments. Poisson regression models showed that patterns of decline in L. tenuis were related to increasing dead vegetation and decreasing vegetation height. Glyphosate applications only had a within-season indirect habitat effect on L. tenuis as field margins sprayed 16 months after an application of 360 g glyphosate ha−1 showed no detrimental effect.

 

 

Susceptibility of various stages of Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja to some pesticides and effect of residues on survival and parasitizing ability

Author: Jalali, S. K. and Singh, S. P.

Year: 1993

Pages: 21-27

Journal: Biocontrol Science and Technology

Volume: 3

Abstract: The toxicity, persistence and effect on parasitism of 10 insecticides, eight fungicides and one acaricide on Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja, an egg parasitoid of a Helicoverpa armigera (Hb), were investigated in the laboratory and under field conditions. At field recommended dosages, the fungicides oxycarboxin, copperoxychloride, streptomycin sulphate + tetracycline hydrochloride and 2bromo 2nitropropane1,3diol and the acaricide dicofol were safe, while the insecticide phosalone and fungicide tridemorph were moderately toxic to adults. All other insecticides tested, namely dimethoate, fenitrothion, monocrotophos, phosphamidon, endosulfan, cypermethrin, decamethrin, fenvalerate and fluvalinate, and the fungicides carbendazim, methyl thiophenate and carboxin were toxic to adults. A high level of parasitism was recorded for all fungicide treatments and for dicofol and fluvalinate. The larval stage of the parasitoid was more tolerant than other stages. The residual toxicity of all fungicides, and dicofol, did not affect the ability of the parasitoid to parasitize its host, while the insecticides phosalone and fluvalinate were slightly persistent, favouring 44.7% and 49.3% parasitism after 15 days. Residues of dimethoate, decamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, monocrotophos and phosphanidon were moderately persistent, while fenitrothion and endosulfan were persistent.

 

 

Imidacloprid increases egg production in Amblyseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseidae).

Author: James, D. G.

Year: 1997

Pages: 75-82

Journal: Experimental and Applied Acarology

Volume: 21

Abstract: The chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid, recommended for aphid control in Australian stone fruit orchards, was examined for its impact on survival and egg production in Amblyseius victoriensis Womersley. Imidacloprid at the field rate (0.0053% a.i.) was non-toxic, but repellent to A. victoriensis in laboratory bioassays. Females treated with imidacloprid showed increased egg production, producing 1.9–2.0 eggs per day compared with 1.3–1.6 eggs per day for the untreated individuals. A population of A. victoriensis in an apricot orchard was significantly reduced for 4 weeks following the application of imidacloprid. However, the population recovered after 5–6 weeks and was significantly larger (more than twice) than that in the untreated section of the orchard during weeks 9–12. The imidacloprid-mediated enhancement of the fecundity and population development of A. victoriensis is discussed with respect to integration in existing biological control programmes in the Australian stone fruit.

 

 

Fecundity in twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) is increased by direct and systemic exposure to imidacloprid.

Author: James, D. G. and Price, T. S.

Year: 2002

Pages: 729-732

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 95

Abstract: The effect of imidacloprid on fecundity in twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, was investigated in laboratory experiments using individual females on bean leaf discs. Mites were directly exposed to spray formulations of imidacloprid or fed on discs cut from a systemically treated bean plant. Imidacloprid-treated T. urticae produced 10–26% more eggs during the first 12 d of adult life and 19–23% more during adulthood compared with a water-only treatment. Increased egg production occurred immediately after exposure and lasted for about 15 d in sprayed mites. In mites exposed to imidacloprid by ingestion, increased egg production was not apparent until after 6 d and lasted until about day 18. Longevity was significantly greater in mites that ingested imidacloprid but not in sprayed mites. The significance and importance of imidacloprid-stimulation of fecundity in T. urticae to pest management in crop systems like hops, which routinely use this insecticide, is discussed.

 

 

Effects of organic-farming-compatible insecticides on four aphid natural enemy species

Author: Jansen, J. P., Defrance, T. and Warnier, A. M.

Year: 2010

Pages: 650-656

Journal: Pest Management Science

Volume: 66

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The toxicities of pyrethrins + rapeseed oil, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), potassium salts of fatty acids and linseed oil were assessed in the laboratory on the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Destefani-Perez), the ladybird Adalia bipunctata (L.), the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Gyll.) and the carabid beetle Bembidion lampros (Herbst.). The methods selected were residual contact toxicity tests on inert and natural substrates. RESULTS: Both the pyrethrin products led to 100% mortality in the adult parasitic wasps and ladybird larvae on glass plates and plants. The pyrethrins + PBO formulation was toxic for B. lampros on sand and natural soil, but the pyrethrins + rapeseed oil formulation was harmless for this species. Insecticidal soaps were harmless for all these beneficial species. None of the tested products significantly affected the parasitism of the onion fly pupae by A. bilineata. CONCLUSION: The results indicated the potentially high toxicity of natural pyrethrins for beneficial arthropods. Although this toxicity needs to be confirmed in field conditions, the toxicity levels obtained in the laboratory were similar to or higher than those of several synthetic insecticides known to be toxic in the field. Insecticidal soaps could be considered as an alternative for aphid control in organic farming in terms of selectivity.

 

 

A laboratory assessment of the toxic attributes of six ‘reduced risk insecticides’ on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

Author: Lefebvre, M., Bostanian, N. J., Thistlewood, H. M. A., Mauffette, Y. and Racette, G.

Year: 2011

Pages: 25-30

Journal: Chemosphere

Volume: 84

Abstract: The modified excised leaf disc method was used to measure the effects of six insecticides on eggs, larvae, adults, and female fecundity of Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) in a ‘worst case laboratory exposure’. This study identified insecticides that would be recommended for tier II field evaluations for an integrated pest management program. Commercially formulated insecticides were applied with a thin-layer chromatography sprayer adjusted to 10.34 kPa (1.5 psi), at the recommended label concentrations in Canada. LC50 values were estimated from aliquots above and below that concentration. Spinetoram and spirotetramat were toxic at label concentrations. The label concentration for spinetoram was 34.3-fold the LC50 estimate (0.006 g l-1) and for spirotetramat the label concentration was 7.7-fold the LC50 estimate (0.03 g l-1). Clothianidin was considerably less toxic and the label concentration was 0.15-fold the LC50 estimate (2.29 g  l-1). Estimates of LC50 for novaluron and chlorantraniliprole could not be established. Both materials showed slight toxicity to at least one growth stage of the predator. Novaluron, clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole should be evaluated in the field for compatibility in IPM programs. Flubendiamide was harmless to all growth stages and it is recommended for inclusion in IPM programs without additional tier II field evaluations. Field evaluations with spinetoram and spirotetramat should be pursued only if alternatives are unavailable.

 

 

A laboratory method for evaluating the side-effects of pesticides on the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (DeStefani-Perez)

Author: Mead-Briggs, M.

Year: 1992

Pages: 179-189

Journal: Aspects of Applied Biology

Volume: 31

Abstract: Unavailable

 

 

Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides

Author: Medina, P., Morales, J. J., Budia, F., Adan, A., Del Estal, P. and Viñuela, E.

Year: 2007

Pages: 1789-1796

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 100

Abstract: Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic;

imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil.

 

 

IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

Author: Michaud, J. P. and Grant, A. K.

Year: 2003

Pages: 18-28

Journal: Journal of Insect Science

Volume: 3

Abstract: A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say) were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp.) ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation) received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co.) and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co.) ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co.) and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co.) ranked very low for IPM-compatibility based on their relatively high toxicity to all species tested.

 

 

Sub-lethal effects of a copper sulfate fungicide on development and reproduction in three coccinellid species.

Author: Michaud, J. P. and Grant, A. K.

Year: 2003

Pages: 1-6

Journal: Journal of Insect Science

Volume: 3

Abstract: Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles.

 

 

Identifying signature of chemical applications on indigenous and invasive nontarget arthropod communities in vineyards

Author: Nash, M. A., Hoffmann, A. A. and Thomson, L. J.

Year: 2010

Pages: 1693-1703

Journal: Ecological Applications

Volume: 20

Abstract: Communities of arthropods providing ecosystem services (e.g., pest control, pollination, and soil nutrient cycling) to agricultural production systems are influenced by pesticide inputs, yet the impact of pesticide applications on nontarget organisms is normally evaluated through standardized sets of laboratory tests involving individual pesticides applied to a few representative species. By combining season-long pesticide applications of various insecticides and fungicides into a metric based on the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC) toxicity ratings, we evaluate season-long pesticide impacts on communities of indigenous and exotic arthropods across 61 vineyards assessed for an entire growing season. The composition of arthropod communities, identified mostly at the family level, but in some cases at the species level, was altered depending on season-long pesticide use. Numbers of mostly indigenous parasitoids, predatory mites, and coccinellids in the canopy, as well as carabid/tenebrionid beetles and some spider families on the ground, were decreased at higher cumulative pesticide metric scores. In contrast, numbers of one invasive millipede species (Ommatoiulus  moreletti Lucas, Julida: Julidae) increased under higher cumulative pesticide metric scores. These changing community patterns were detected despite the absence of broad-spectrum insecticide applications in the vineyards. Pesticide effects were mostly due to indoxacarb and sulphur, applied as a fungicide. The reduction of beneficial arthropods and increase in an invasive herbivorous millipede under high cumulative pesticide metric scores highlights the need to manage nontarget season-long pesticide impacts in vineyards. A cumulative pesticide metric, based on lOBC toxicity ratings, provides a way of assessing overall-toxicity effects, giving managers a means to estimate and consider potential negative season-long pesticide impacts on ecosystem services provided through arthropod communities.

 

 

Effect of remnant vegetation, pesticides and farm management on abundance of the beneficial predator Notonomus gravis (Chaudoir) (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Author: Nash, M. A., Thomson, L. J. and Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2008

Pages: 83-93

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 46

Abstract: Carabid beetles are central to the biological control of arable crop pests, in particular slugs. We evaluate three ways of potentially promoting predator numbers: providing conservation strips adjacent to farmland, reducing the number of deleterious chemical sprays and changing tillage practices. In providing growers with management guidelines we also introduce a simple insecticide metric, based on IOBC toxicity ratings, and application number, to assess the biological impacts of agro-chemical usage. Sampling across 20 western Victorian properties, along transects from adjacent remnant grasslands 200 m into arable fields, was seasonally (February and March) biased to the dominant carabid species. Effects of remnant grassland or crop varied among properties, but overall there was a greater abundance of the carabid Notonomus gravis in remnant grasslands, with a reduction in populations as the distance increased into the field. Ordination analyses indicated structure in the predator communities, both in the field and remnant environments, correlated to field chemical use, and tillage. This study demonstrates that beneficial species respond to changes in agronomic practices (e.g. tillage, insecticide) and growers can augment ecosystem services provided by maintaining diverse environments.

 

 

Toxicity of different pesticides to parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma.

Author: Navarjan, P.

Year: 1986

Pages: 423-432

Journal: Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasitoids

Abstract: Unavailable

 

 

Dimethoate, fenvalerate and their mixture affects Hylyphantes graminicolai (Araneae: Linyphiidae) adults and their unexposed offspring

Author: Peng, Y., Shao, X., Hose, G. C., Liu, F. and Chen, J.

Year: 2010

Pages: 343-351

Journal: Agricultural and Forest Entomology

Volume: 12

Abstract: 1 Mixtures of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to combat resistance in agricultural pests, although few studies have been conducted on the effects of pesticide mixtures on beneficial nontarget organisms.

2 In the present study, we exposed adult females (F0) of Hylyphantes graminicola (Araneae: Linyphiidae) to fenvalerate, dimethoate and their commercially available 1 : 1 mixture (by mass). We investigated the acute toxicity of these pesticides to the

exposed adults, as well as sublethal effects on reproduction and acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity. We also studied the effects of parental exposure on the size, development and enzyme activity of unexposed offspring.

3 All three formulations were acutely toxic to H. graminicola, with synergism between dimethoate and fenvalerate leading to greater toxicity in the 1 : 1 mixture than for the two insecticides alone. The sublethal effects of direct pesticide exposure were a

reduction in acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity and a reduction in the number of egg sacs produced by exposed spiders relative to the control spiders. The unexposed offspring of the fenvalerate and mixture exposed spiders were smaller

and took longer to mature than the control spiders. Offspring of all exposed spiders also had significantly reduced carboxylesterase activity relative to control spiders.

4 We concluded that the effects of parental exposure on the offspring were likely to increase their susceptibility to future pesticide exposures, and reduce the capacity of this spider to serve as a pest control agent.

 

 

Pesticide Properties Database

Author: PPDB

Year: 2009

URL: http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/footprint/en/

 

 

Toxicity of selected insecticides to Trichogramma chilonis: Assessing their safety in the rice ecosystem

Author: Preetha, G., Stanley, J., Suresh, S., Kuttalam, S. and Samiyappan, R.

Year: 2009

Pages: 209

Journal: Phytoparasitica

Volume: 37

Abstract: Nine insecticides, namely, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, clothianidin, pymetrozine, ethofenprox, BPMC, endosulfan, acephate, and the product Virtako® (Syngenta; chlorantraniliprole 20%+thiamethoxam 20%) were tested to determine their toxicity to the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis using an insecticide-coated vial (scintillation) residue bioassay. All the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid. Thiamethoxam showed the highest toxicity to T. chilonis with an LC50 of 0.0014 mg a.i. l -1, followed by imidacloprid (0.0027 mg a.i. l -1). The LC50 values of acephate and endosulfan were 4.4703 and 1.8501 mg a.i. l -1, exhibiting low toxicity when compared with other insecticides tested. Thiamethoxam was found to be 3,195, 1,395 and 1,322 times more toxic than acephate, chlorantraniliprole and endosulfan, respectively, as revealed by the LC50 values to T. chilonis. Based on risk quotient, which is the ratio between the field-recommended doses and the LC50 of the beneficial, only chlorantraniliprole was found to be harmless to T. chilonis. The insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, Virtako®, ethofenprox and BPMC were found to be dangerous to the parasitoid. Since T. chilonis is an important egg parasitoid of leaf folders, reported to reduce the pest population considerably and often released augmentatively in rice IPM programs, the above noted dangerous chemicals should be avoided in the rice ecosystem.

 

 

Impact of management intensity on mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) in southcentral Washington wine grapes.

Author: Prischmann, D. A., James, D. G. and Snyder, W. E.

Year: 2005

Pages: 277-288

Journal: International Journal of Acarology

Volume: 31

Abstract: In 2001 and 2002, grapevines in southcentral Washington were surveyed to assess taxonomic composition, density, and phenology of spider mites and predaceous phytoseiid mites. To determine how management intensity affected the mite fauna we compared mite densities among, 1) non-managed grapevines not exposed to any chemical input, 2) managed vineyards exposed to fungicides and herbicides, and 3) managed vineyards exposed to fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and acaricides. Because the use of non-selective pesticides often results in higher pest densities due to negative effects on predators, our hypothesis was that as chemical input increased, spider mite densities would increase while densities of phytoseiid mites would decrease. Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor was the most abundant spider mite in our samples. Spider mite densities were lowest in sites receiving no chemical input, while spider mite densities were similar in low and high input managed vineyards. Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) was the primary specialist-feeding phytoseiid mite in our samples. There were no significant differences in specialist phytoseiid mite densities among vineyards, regardless of management scheme. This suggests that intensive vineyard management is having little impact on specialists, perhaps in part due to the evolution of pesticide resistance among predator populations in heavily managed vineyards. A guild of generalist phytoseiid mites dominated non-managed sites, but was virtually absent from managed vineyards, regardless of the intensity of chemical use. Tydeid mite densities were higher on grapevines receiving no chemical input than in managed vineyards. More robust populations of generalists in non-managed sites indicate that intensive vineyard management has strong negative impacts on these predators. However, conservation of generalists may be challenging for growers to implement, because generalist densities were decimated even under the least-chemically intensive management regime

 

 

The negative effect of some selective insecticides on the functional response of a potential biological control agent, the spider Philodromus cespitum

Author: Rëzáč, M., Pekár, S. and Stara, J.

Year: 2010

Pages: 503-510

Journal: BioControl

Volume: 55

Abstract: The impact of five selective insecticides on the functional response of a potential biological control agent, the spider Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer) (Araneae: Philodromidae), was studied in the laboratory. This spider is the most abundant beneficial arthropod on trees in commercial orchards in central Europe. We expected that selective insecticides applied at the recommended doses would have no effect or a negligible effect on the spiders’ performance. Our results showed that the mortality of spiders resulting from residual uptake of the chemicals differed among insecticides. Dimilin, NeemAzal, Mospilan, and Integro caused mortality of less than 10%, while SpinTor caused mortality of 17%. All five preparations can be considered harmless in terms of mortality in comparison with Decis, which caused 80% mortality. Exposure to residues of NeemAzal, SpinTor, and Dimilin resulted in a significantly lower predation rate than the control. The lowest predation rate was observed in spiders treated with SpinTor. These results imply that the natural pest control provided by P. cespitum spiders can be weakened by the application of SpinTor, NeemAzal, and Dimilin. On the other hand, the functional response was not significantly affected by the application of Integro and Mospilan. Therefore, these two insecticides are recommended for use in the integrated pest management (IPM) of orchards.

 

 

Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Editors: Roush, R. T. and Tabashnik, B. E.

Year: 1990

Book Pages: 303

Publisher: Chapman and Hall New York

Abstract: Unavailable

 

 

Residual toxicity of acaricides to Galendromus occidentalis and Phytoseiulus persimilis reproductive potential

Author: Sáenz-de-Cabezón Irigaray, F. J., Zalom, F. G. and Thompson, P. B.

Year: 2007

Pages: 153-159

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 40

Abstract: Understanding the effects of pesticide residues on leaf surfaces through time on phytoseiid mites is important to their successful integration into augmentation and/or conservation programs. The residual toxicities of fenpyroximate (Fujimite®), acequinocyl (Kanemite®), etoxazole (Zeal®), spiromesifen (Oberon®), bifenazate (Acramite®) and abamectin (Agri-mek®) on leaflets to Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari:Phytoseiidae) were assessed 3, 6, 10, 14, 17, 24, 30 and 37 days post treatment. Impacts on mortality, fecundity and fertility were determined following 3 days of exposure to each leaf surface residue interval. Percent mortality and total effects (E) on adult female reproductive potential thus measured were used to assess each acaricide’s persistence. Based on mortality, fenpyroximate was considered slightly (from 5 to 15 days) persistent for both species by IOBC standards, while abamectin was also slightly persistent for P. persimilis only. The remaining acaricides would be classified as short lived (less than 5 days) for both species. Persistence classified by considering E suggest that fenpyroximate and etoxazole would be the least compatible with G. occidentalis and P. persimilis. Both were persistent (longer than 30 days). Bifenazate and spiromesifen were slightly persistent to both predators. Acequinocyl was slightly persistent to G. occidentalis, but short lived to P. persimilis. Abamectin was slightly persistent to P. persimilis, but short lived to G. occidentalis. Consideration of both direct and side effects of these acaricides will improve pesticide selection, enabling better conditions for Phytoseiid conservation and augmentation.

 

 

Effects of 67 herbicides and plant growth regulators on the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Col.: Staphylinidae) in the laboratory

Author: Samsøe-Petersen, L.

Year: 1995

Pages: 95-104

Journal: Entomophaga

Volume: 40

Abstract: Effects of 67 herbicides — several of which were mixtures — and plant growth regulators on adult females of the rove beetle, Aleochara bilineata, were investigated in the laboratory. The pesticides were tested in concentrations equivalent to the highest recommended dosages for practical use. Mortality, egg production and hatch of the eggs were measured. Most herbicides had no serious effect on any of the parameters recorded. Among the urea herbicides, however, several showed adverse effects on egg production and/or hatch of the eggs laid. The strongest effect was exerted by methabenzthiazuron that impeded hatch of the eggs completely. Bromoxynil, pyridate and haloxyfod reduced survival, egg production and/or egg hatch to some degree, while carbaryl, which is also used as a plant growth regulator, killed all the beetles immediately. The usefulness of dose-response-studies and the importance of measuring sublethal effects are stressed, and the choice of herbicides showing no toxic effects is recommended.

 

 

Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

Author: Samsøe-Petersen, L., Gustavson, K., Madsen, T., Mogensen, B. B., Lassen, P., Skjernov, K., Christoffersen, K. and Jørgensen, E.

Year: 2001

Pages: 1570-1578

Journal: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Volume: 20

Abstract: The fate of esfenvalerate was investigated by sampling and chemical analysis after spraying of an artificial pond (25 g a.i./ha) and in the laboratory with [14C]esfenvalerate by trapping of 14CO2 and fractionation of the sediment. The effects were investigated on pelagic communities in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure concentrations in the surface microlayer, water column, and sediment of 0.4 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, and 9 μg/kg dry weight, respectively, two weeks after application. The degradation studies showed a limited mineralization (26.5%) of [chlorophenyl-14C]esfenvalerate during 112 d. Part of the substance was transformed to water-soluble compounds (18.1%) or compounds attached to fulvic acids (26.2%), humic acids (14.2%), or nonextractable sediment constituents (8.8%). The formulated product Sumi-Alpha 5 FW® caused 100% mortality to Cymatia coleoptrata after surface application of 0.13 g a.i./ha. Effects on zooplankton were recorded at 0.005 μg/L of esfenvalerate. The 96-h median lethal concentration for first-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius was 0.13 μg/L, whereas the delayed emergence lowest-observed-effect concentration was 0.8 μg/L.

 

 

Susceptibility of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, to insecticide residues on apple leaves

Author: Shaw, P. W. and Wallis, D. R.

Year: 2010

Pages: 55-59

Journal: New Zealand Plant Protection

Volume: 63

Abstract: The European earwig (Forficula auricularia) is potentially a predator of a number of insect pests in apple orchards. However, its effectiveness as a natural enemy in apple orchards may be compromised by insecticide sprays. A laboratory bioassay of eight insecticides currently used in Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) apple orchards and one as-yet unregistered product was undertaken to determine their effects on earwigs. Adult earwigs were placed in ventilated containers where they were exposed to insecticide residues on apple leaves and monitored on four occasions over 10 days. Indoxacarb, thiacloprid, spinosad and diazinon caused the greatest mortality to earwigs while carbaryl appeared to be less harmful. Chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, emamectin benzoate and methoxyfenozide caused no increased mortality of earwigs compared with the control. Identification and avoidance of harmful insecticides may help to enhance the potential of earwigs as natural enemies in apple orchards.

 

 

Effect of selected pesticides on larval mortality of the neuropteran predator, Chrysopa lacciperda Kimmins, of the lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr)

Author: Singh, J. P., Jaiswal, A. K., Monobrullah, M. and Bhattacharya, A.

Year: 2010

Pages: 69-72

Journal: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology

Volume: 13

Abstract: Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the bioefficacy of some pesticides against larval Chrysopa lacciperda Kimmins, a lac insect predator, to develop a suitable strategy for field management of this serious neuropteran pest of Indian lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr). Seven insecticides (lambdacyhalothrin, carbosulfan, spinosad, indoxacarb, fipronil, alphamethrin and ethofenprox) were identified based on field trials against the lac insect. They were evaluated for their bioefficacy against C. lacciperda by spraying the insect directly and by exposing the insect to a residual film. Direct spray of lambdacyhalothrin (0.005 and 0.008% a.i.), carbosulfan (0.02 and 0.03% a.i.), fipronil (0.005 and 0.01% a.i.), alphamethrin (0.005 and 0.01% a.i.), spinosad (0.02% a.i.), indoxacarb (0.02% a.i.), and ethofenprox (0.02% a.i.) exhibited 100% mortality of C. lacciperda within 24 h of treatment. Fipronil (0.005 and 0.01% a.i.) and indoxacarb (0.02% a.i.) were equally effective as 100% mortality was observed within 24 h of treatment with both modes of treatment. For most insecticides, direct spray was more effective compared to residual films. It is therefore, suggested that lambdacyhalothrin, carbosulfan, indoxacarb, spinosad, fipronil, alphamethrin and ethofenprox shall be incorporated in IPM programs for the effective management of this neuropteran predator of lac insect without adversely affecting the lac insect.

 

 

Field validation of laboratory-derived IOBC toxicity ratings for natural enemies in commercial vineyards

Author: Thomson, L. J. and Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2006

Pages: 507-515

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 39

Abstract: Management of pests and diseases remains a key issue for agricultural profitability and environmental health. Moves towards sustainability require a reduction in chemical toxicity loadings and conservation of natural enemies to maintain pest control. There is a lot of information from laboratory tests regarding the effects of chemicals on beneficial predators and parasitoids but very few translations of these effects into field impacts particularly under commercial conditions. To address this issue we calculated a chemical toxicity score for 19 commercial vineyards based on IOBC toxicity ratings and application number, and compared this to extensive Weld collections to determine if natural enemy populations can be related to predicted toxicity loadings. Invertebrates were sampled four times during the growing season using canopy sticky traps and ground level pitfall traps. Ordination analyses using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated community structure in vineyards correlated to site chemical use, while principal components analyses identified the taxa

involved. One ordination axis from canopy data and two axes from ground level data were correlated to overall IOBC ratings for the vineyards. Principal components analyses indicated that spiders, lacewings, carabids and parasitoids were all affected by chemical use. IOBC rating based on laboratory studies therefore correlated with chemical effects on field populations of natural enemies in commercial vineyards where complexes of pesticides were applied. The use of chemicals with low toxicity to beneficials as predicted by IOBC ratings will contribute to preservation and maintenance of natural enemies in vineyard ecosystems.

 

 

Ecologically sustainable chemical recommendations for agricultural pest control?

Author: Thomson, L. J. and Hoffmann, A. A.

Year: 2007

Pages: 1741-1750

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 100

Abstract: Effective pest control remains an essential part of food production, and it is provided both by chemicals and by natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems. These methods of control are often in conflict because of the negative impact of chemicals on natural enemies. There are already well-established approaches such as those provided by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control-Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms for testing, collecting, and publishing information on responses of natural enemies to chemicals based on laboratory responses of specific organisms; however, these tests do not assess the cumulative impact of chemical inputs across an entire season or consider impacts on the complex communities of natural enemies that can provide effective pest control on a farm. Here, we explore the potential of different approaches for assessing the impact of chemicals on agricultural ecosystems and we propose a simple metric for sustainable chemical use on farms that minimizes overall impact on beneficial groups. We suggest ways in which the effectiveness of metrics can be extended to include persistence and habitat features. Such metrics can assist farmers in developing targets for sustainable chemical use as demonstrated in the viticultural industry.

 

 

Community and species-specific responses of wild Bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop

Author: Tuell, J. K. and Isaacs, R.

Year: 2010

Pages: 668-675

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 103

Abstract: Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analysed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

 

 

Carryover of imidacloprid and disulfoton in subsurface drip-irrigated hop.

Author: Wright, L. C. and Cone, W. W.

Year: 1999

Pages: 59-64

Journal: Agricultural and Urban Entomology

Volume: 16

Abstract: Unavailable

 

 

Inheritance and synergisms of resistance to imidacloprid in the Colarado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Author: Zhao, J. Z., Bishop, B. A. and Grafius, E. J.

Year: 2000

Pages: 1508-1514

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 93

Abstract: Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), adults and larvae collected from Long Island, NY, were 100.8 and 13.2 times more resistant to imidacloprid, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain. This high level of resistance appeared in only the third field season of imidacloprid use. Analysis of probit lines from F1 reciprocal crosses indicated that resistance to imidacloprid in adults was inherited autosomaly as an incompletely recessive factor. The degree of dominance of the resistance was −0.23 and −0.10, respectively, 3 and 7 d after treatment (incompletely recessive). The χ2 analysis of response ratio statistics from F1 × susceptible back crosses compared with a monogenic model suggested that more than one locus is responsible for resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism studies with piperonyl butoxide suggested that mixed-function oxidase mediated detoxification is responsible for the resistance to imidacloprid in adults. Synergism studies with S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that esterase mediated detoxification may be an additional resistance factor. Mixed-function oxidase mediated detoxification is probably also one of the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid in larvae. Because the synergists used did not completely eliminate resistance in the resistant strain, there may be additional mechanisms involved. Refugia and crop rotation decrease the frequency of homozygous resistant genotypes and may be effective resistance management strategies, because of the recessive nature of the resistance.

 

 

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